[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past 10 years, significant strides have been made in therapeutics for sleep disorders. In this second installment of a two-part review series, we discuss the current evidence surrounding the mechanisms of actions, indications, efficacy, and adverse side effects associated with the current over-the-counter and pharmacotherapeutics for hypersomnia, parasomnias, and movement disorders of sleep.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep starts (hypnic jerks) and sleep talking (somniloquy) are both common physiologic phenomenon that occur during sleep in healthy children and adults. They are both examples of nocturnal events that may be a source of concern to parents, partners, or others who are watching or listening to a child or bed-partner during sleep. Neither of these phenomenon disturb sleep, and hence should not have any daytime consequences. Sleep talking can be disturbing to individuals sleeping in close proximity due to anxiety about what it may represent to the individual or simply because it disturbs the sleep of others. Sleep starts can be disturbing also, as they may be confused with sleep-onset seizures. Either phenomenon can coexist with other mental or physical health or other sleep disturbances. Proper diagnosis and where appropriate, reassurance can relieve parental and/or bed-partner’s anxiety and avoid costly and time-consuming evaluations that are often unnecessary. Health care providers must be able to differentiate these phenomena from other worrisome sleep disturbance such as parasomnias or sleep-related breathing disorders may coexist; thus, requiring further evaluation.
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