Prevalence and clinical characteristics of primary headaches among school children in South Korea: a nationwide survey.
ABSTRACT To determine the 1-year prevalence of headache and clinical characteristics of primary headaches among school children in South Korea.
Many population-based studies have estimated the 1-year prevalence of headache, migraine, and tension-type headache (TTH). The results of those studies vary in terms of race and region. There have been few epidemiological population-based studies of headache in children and adolescents in Korea.
We conducted a cross-sectional school-based study of a randomized and proportional sample of 5360 boys and girls. All 180 sampled schools participated in this study. The questionnaires collected demographic data in addition to specific questions about headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorder criteria, 2nd Edition. Valid questionnaires were returned by 94.1% of the sample population. Modified criteria changed the "duration" of migraine (>1 hour instead of 4 hours).
The prevalence of headache among school children was 29.1% (1465/5039) in South Korea. The prevalence of headache in girls (33.4%) was significantly higher than in boys (24.4%) (P<.001). The mean age of students with headaches (14.02±3.03) was significantly higher than students without headaches (12.73±3.36) (P <.001). The prevalence of headache according to region was 30.7% among students in urban, 31.2% in suburban, and 21.6% in rural areas. The prevalence of headache according to age was 20.8% among students ∼6-12 years, 32.0% ∼13-15 years, and 38.2% ∼16-18 years. The prevalence according to headache types was 8.7% (boys 7.0%, girls 10.3%) in migraine, 13.7% (boys 10.7%, girls 16.3%) in TTH, and 6.7% in others. The mean frequency, severity of headache, and duration of symptoms were significantly higher in girls than in boys (P<.001).
Recurrent primary headaches are quite prevalent among school-aged children and adolescents in South Korea, and the prevalence rates are similar to those reported elsewhere. TTH was more common than migraine. The prevalence of migraine headache increased with age. The prevalence rate of headache in students in urban and suburban areas was significantly higher than the rate of students in rural areas.
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ABSTRACT: Neuro-Behcet's disease (NBD) involves the central nervous system; peripheral nervous system involvement is not often reported. NBD is quite common in adult patients and occurs rarely during childhood and adolescence. Young patients may share symptoms and signs of NBD with other neuro-ophthalmological disorders (e.g. idiopathic intracranial hypertension); thus, making the differential diagnosis difficult. Neuroimaging is mandatory and necessary for a correct NBD diagnosis but in children radiological examinations are often difficult to perform without sedation. From 1971 to 2011, 130 patients aged <=16 years have been reported with NBD, according to retrospective surveys, case series, and case reports. The origin of the reported cases met the well-known geographical distribution of Behcet's disease (BD); the mean age at presentation of neurological findings was 11.8 years, with male gender prevalence (ratio, 2.9:1). We considered in detail the neuro-ophthalmological features of the 53 cases whose neuroimaging alterations were described with an assigned radiological pattern of the disease (parenchymal: 14 cases, non-parechymal: 35 cases, and mixed: 4 cases). In 19/53 patients (36%), neuro-ophthalmological symptoms anticipated any pathognomonic sign for a BD diagnosis, or only occasional aphtae were recalled by the patients. Family history was positive in 17% of subjects. Headache was reported in 75% of the patients; in those presenting with cerebral vascular involvement, headache was combined to other symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Papilledema was the most frequently reported ophthalmological finding, followed by posterior uveitis. Treatment consisted of systemic steroids in 93% of patients, often combined with other immunosuppressive drugs (especially colchicine and azathioprine). Clinical recovery or improvement was documented in the large majority of patients. Nine subjects had definitive alterations, and one died. Based on our review and personal experience, a delayed diagnosis, and the consequently delayed immunosuppressive treatment, may favour permanent sequelae, in particular, optic atrophy.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2013; 8(1):18. · 5.83 Impact Factor
Article: The cross- ethnic variations in the prevalence of headache and other somatic complaints among adolescents in Northern Israel.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Headache is the most common cause for chronic or recurrent pain in childhood and adolescence. Chronic pain may have a long-term effect on adolescents. It might contribute to functional limitations, such as poor school attendance, and it may adversely affect development of healthy social relationships. The aim of our study was to examine the cross- ethnic variation in the prevalence of headache in a non- clinical sample of adolescents in Northern Israel and to learn about its association to other somatic complaints. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was presented to 2,088 tenth grade students attending 19 high-schools in Northern Israel (all the public high schools within two districts). Participants were Jews and Arabs, the latter including Muslim, Christians, and Druze, aged 15 to 16. Parental and student consent was obtained from all participants. The study was approved by the IRB of our institution. All 2088 questionnaires were returned although only 2019 were usable and analyzed. Arab adolescents comprised 55% (1117) of the analyzed sample and Jews 45% (902), 56% of participants were girls. Of the Arab participants, 18.6% reported having frequent headaches (girls 25.3%, boys 9.1%, P<0.0001) much less than their Jewish peers (P<0.0001) among whom 27.9% reported having frequent headaches (girls 35.6%, boys 19% P<0.0001). Other somatic complaints such as abdominal pain, palpitations, disordered sleep and fatigue were more frequent in adolescents (Jews and Arabs, girls and boys) who suffered from headaches than in their peers who did not report having headaches (P<0.0001), the same pattern observed in the Jewish and the Arab group. Headache is a frequent complaint among adolescents in Northern Israel. Jewish adolescents reported having headaches more frequently than their Arab peers. Those who suffered from frequent headaches also reported having significantly more other somatic complaints than adolescents without headaches. Girls had more somatic complaints then boys in the two ethnic groups.The Journal of Headache and Pain 01/2013; 14(1):21. · 2.43 Impact Factor