Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness: Construct Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire

Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, NY 14642, USA. .
Psychological Assessment (Impact Factor: 2.99). 09/2011; 24(1):197-215. DOI: 10.1037/a0025358
Source: PubMed


The present study examined the psychometric properties and construct validity of scores derived from the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) using latent variable modeling with 5 independent samples varying in age and level of psychopathology. The INQ was derived from the interpersonal theory of suicide and was developed to measure thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness-both proximal causes of desire for suicide. Results support that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are distinct but related constructs and that they can be reliably measured. Further, multiple-group analyses were consistent with invariance for young versus older adults and nonclinical versus clinical populations, thereby supporting the relevance of these constructs to diverse populations. Finally, both constructs demonstrated convergent associations with related interpersonal constructs-including loneliness and social support for belongingness and social worth and death ideation for burdensomeness--as well as prospective associations with suicidal ideation.

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    • "The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire—15 item version (INQ-15; Van Orden et al. 2008; Van Orden et al. 2012) was utilized to measure feelings of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, the components of suicidal desire as conceptualized by the IPTS. The INQ is a self-report measure in which items are scored on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (Not at all true for me) to 7 (Very true for me), with higher scores indicating greater risks for these two components. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prior research has established a connection between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (IPTS) posits that an individual must possess both a desire and capability for suicide in order to engage in a lethal suicide attempt. The IPTS conceptualizes the role of NSSI in suicidal behavior as contributing to an individual’s acquired capability. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frequency of engagement in NSSI and suicidal desire ( thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness). In this study, undergraduate students (n = 999) completed various questionnaires online. Results revealed a significant, positive association between NSSI frequency and thwarted belongingness and a non-significant association between NSSI frequency and perceived burdensomeness. Additionally, results indicated a significant indirect effect of NSSI frequency on burdensomeness and belongingness through depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms. The direct effect of NSSI frequency on belongingness remained significant; however, the direct effect of NSSI frequency on burdensomeness did not. These findings suggest that the relationship between NSSI and suicide is not strictly limited to acquired capability, but rather includes a component of suicidal desire.
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    • "Responses are rated on Likert-type scales with values ranging from 1 (not at all true for me) to 7 (very true for me). This measure of thwarted belongingness has been shown to be highly convergent with measures of loneliness and social support, while the perceived burdensomeness items converge with measures of social worth and death ideation (Van Orden et al., 2012). In this study, the alpha coefficient for the thwarted belongingness subscale was 0.88 and for the perceived burdensomeness subscale was 0.95. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent theories posit diverse mechanisms of suicide risk, yet many models converge on one variable—hopelessness. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of hopelessness in the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (ITS), specifically, whether hopelessness moderated the interaction of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness when predicting current suicidal ideation, plans, and urges. Moderation was tested in two independent samples, one nonclinical (n = 189) and one clinical (n = 760), through hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. After controlling for demographic covariates, depressive and anxious symptoms, main effects of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness, and all two-way interactions, the three-way interaction between thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and hopelessness was a positive and significant predictor of suicidal risk in both samples. Probing revealed that the interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness significantly predicted current suicidal risk only at high levels of hopelessness, consistent with predictions of the ITS. Read More:
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    • "For example, in a recent study of abused Spanish women, Calvete, Estévez, and Corral (2007) found that cognitive schemas involving disconnection and rejection partially mediated the link between abuse and depressive symptoms. However, their measure of disconnection and rejection was based on scores that tapped into a diverse range of schemas, including cognitions associated with abandonment , abuse, defectiveness, and emotional deprivation, rather than schemas specific to a loss of belongingness (Van Orden et al., 2012). Thus, their findings do not clarify the extent to which any specific schema (e.g., abandonment vs. emotional deprivation) accounted for their results. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between domestic abuse, belongingness, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 71 female primary care patients. As expected, domestic abuse was associated with greater depressive symptoms. Results from conducting mediation analyses, including bootstrapping techniques, provided strong convergent support for a model in which the hypothesized effect of domestic abuse on depressive symptoms in women is mediated by a loss of belongingness. Noteworthy, even after controlling for content overlap between measures of belongingness and depressive symptoms, the mediation model remained significant. Some implications of the present findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
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