Guideline for management and treatment of fetal and congenital hydrocephalus: Center Of Excellence-Fetal and Congenital Hydrocephalus Top 10 Japan Guideline 2011
Health Sciences Asia Executive Dean Office, Japan International University, 2-18-1 Nakoji, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8530, Japan.Child s Nervous System (Impact Factor: 1.11). 10/2011; 27(10):1563-70. DOI: 10.1007/s00381-011-1541-7
INTRODUCTION: Hydrocephalus does not indicate a single clinical entity, but includes a variety of clinicopathological conditions caused by excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) based on the disturbed circulation. Recent progress in prenatal neuroimagings such as MRI and ultrasound echoencephalography on fetus enables to understand clinicopathological conditions of CSF circulation disorder in conjunction with morphological changes in the central nervous system properly. It has been revealed that the CSF dynamics develop in the theory of evolution from the immature brain, as in the animals with the minor CSF pathway predominance, towards matured adult human brain together with the completion of the major CSF pathway: the "Evolution Theory in CSF Dynamics". Now, we can analyze CSF circulation dynamically and also analyze the flow velocity and direction of CSF movement. CENTER OF EXCELLENCE-FETAL HYDROCEPHALUS TOP 10 JAPAN: Along with this technical improvement, the standards of clinicopathological evaluation of hydrocephalus as well as the classification and concept of hydrocephalus shall undergo a major upgrade. Based on such remarkable improvement in the recent practical diagnostic evaluation of fetal hydrocephalus, it is now required to update the guideline for management and treatment of fetal and congenital hydrocephalus, and a nationwide study group; Center of Excellence-Fetal Hydrocephalus Top 10 Japan, was organized in 2008 in Japan. The retrospective analysis of 333 cases of congenital hydrocephalus indicated a fact that 43% of these cases were diagnosed prenatally, and the majority of cases were treated in these top 10 institutes in Japan. Now, congenital hydrocephalus diagnosed immediately after birth is regarded as to be based on embryonic stage; brain disorder in patients with congenital hydrocephalus should be considered in conjunction with neuronal mature process of embryonic stage. The fact is supported by the current trends in hydrocephalus research represented by "Perspective Classification of Congenital Hydrocephalus" and "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification". The ultimate goal of hydrocephalus treatment remains achieving arrested hydrocephalus by shunt surgeries. In the future, to achieve arrested hydrocephalus, minimum quantity of CSF to be drained should be elucidated. Consideration for accurate operative indication of ETV along with new neuroendoscopic device development and analysis of CSF circulation is expected in the future. The data in this prospective multicenter analysis in this guideline are credited in Oxford Evidence level 2b (Grade II).
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ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aims to review the role of choroid plexus coagulation (CPC) for hydrocephalus not due to CSF overproduction. Methods: The literatures covering CPC/cauterization/extirpation and ablation searched through PubMed were reviewed. Results: The history of CPC goes back to early 1900s by open surgery. It has evolved to mainly an endoscopic surgery since 1930s. With the development of other treatment methods and the understanding of CSF dynamics, the application of CPC dramatically decreased by 1970s. In late 2000, there was a resurgence of CPC in combination with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) performed in Africa. Conclusions: CPC remains one of the options for the treatment of hydrocephalus in selected cases. CPC might provide a temporary reduction in CSF production to allow the further development of CSF absorption in infant. Adding CPC to ETV for infants with communicating hydrocephalus may increase the shunt independent rate thus avoiding the consequence of late complication related to the shunt device. This is important for patients who are difficult to be followed up, due to geographical and/or socioeconomic constrains. Adding CPC to ETV for obstructive hydrocephalus in infant may also increase the successful rate. Furthermore, CPC may be an option for cases with high chance of shunt complication such as hydranencephaly. In addition, CPC may act as an adjunct therapeutic measure for complex cases such as multiloculated hydrocephalus. In comparison with the traditional treatment of CSF shunting, the role of CPC needs to be further evaluated in particular concerning the neurocognitive development.Child s Nervous System 11/2012; 29(1). DOI:10.1007/s00381-012-1960-0 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) has higher proportions in developing countries such as Brazil, reaching rates of 3.16:1,000 newborns. Early diagnosis is essential and can be done during the second trimester of pregnancy, highlighting the importance of regular prenatal care. Our objective is to describe the epidemiological profile of children with CH in the state of Bahia. Methods: Consecutive medical records of patients with CH, aged less than 2 years and operated at a pediatric reference hospital between September 2009 and September 2012, were reviewed. Results: One hundred twenty-one children underwent ventricular peritoneal shunt (VP shunt) due to CH. As for prenatal care, 38% of pregnant women did it regularly. Males predominated with 56% of cases with a median age of 3 months, and 68% were from the countryside area. The most frequent clinical manifestations were bulging fontanelle (37%) and increased head circumference (30%). There were 13 (11%) reports of complications associated with VP shunts. There were nine deaths (7%), and respiratory complications were the main cause. Conclusions: Public health measures are the key to increase mothers' knowledge about the importance of regular prenatal monitoring. There was a predominance of male children, with a median age of 3 months, with the majority coming from the countryside.Child s Nervous System 04/2013; 29(10). DOI:10.1007/s00381-013-2111-y · 1.11 Impact Factor
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