Guideline for management and treatment of fetal and congenital hydrocephalus: Center Of Excellence-Fetal and Congenital Hydrocephalus Top 10 Japan Guideline 2011.
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Hydrocephalus does not indicate a single clinical entity, but includes a variety of clinicopathological conditions caused by excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) based on the disturbed circulation. Recent progress in prenatal neuroimagings such as MRI and ultrasound echoencephalography on fetus enables to understand clinicopathological conditions of CSF circulation disorder in conjunction with morphological changes in the central nervous system properly. It has been revealed that the CSF dynamics develop in the theory of evolution from the immature brain, as in the animals with the minor CSF pathway predominance, towards matured adult human brain together with the completion of the major CSF pathway: the "Evolution Theory in CSF Dynamics". Now, we can analyze CSF circulation dynamically and also analyze the flow velocity and direction of CSF movement. CENTER OF EXCELLENCE-FETAL HYDROCEPHALUS TOP 10 JAPAN: Along with this technical improvement, the standards of clinicopathological evaluation of hydrocephalus as well as the classification and concept of hydrocephalus shall undergo a major upgrade. Based on such remarkable improvement in the recent practical diagnostic evaluation of fetal hydrocephalus, it is now required to update the guideline for management and treatment of fetal and congenital hydrocephalus, and a nationwide study group; Center of Excellence-Fetal Hydrocephalus Top 10 Japan, was organized in 2008 in Japan. The retrospective analysis of 333 cases of congenital hydrocephalus indicated a fact that 43% of these cases were diagnosed prenatally, and the majority of cases were treated in these top 10 institutes in Japan. Now, congenital hydrocephalus diagnosed immediately after birth is regarded as to be based on embryonic stage; brain disorder in patients with congenital hydrocephalus should be considered in conjunction with neuronal mature process of embryonic stage. The fact is supported by the current trends in hydrocephalus research represented by "Perspective Classification of Congenital Hydrocephalus" and "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification". The ultimate goal of hydrocephalus treatment remains achieving arrested hydrocephalus by shunt surgeries. In the future, to achieve arrested hydrocephalus, minimum quantity of CSF to be drained should be elucidated. Consideration for accurate operative indication of ETV along with new neuroendoscopic device development and analysis of CSF circulation is expected in the future. The data in this prospective multicenter analysis in this guideline are credited in Oxford Evidence level 2b (Grade II).
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Classification of hydrocephalus is the most crucial but the most complicated academic challenge within the hydrocephalus research field. The major difficulty in this challenge arises from the fact that the classification is based on almost all subjects in hydrocephalus research, i.e., definition and terminology of hydrocephalus, pathophysiology, hydrocephalus chronology, specific forms of hydrocephalus, associated congenital anomalies/syndrome and underlying conditions, diagnostic procedures for hydrocephalus, and treatment modalities in hydrocephalus. The current status of the classification of hydrocephalus in individual subgroups was reviewed and summarized from publications in the last 60 years (1950-2010), and discussed focusing on the variety of characteristics in hydrocephalus, with more and more new aspects recently disclosed not only in fetal and pediatric but also in adult hydrocephalus. A recently-reported classification of hydrocephalus, "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification" provides comprehensive coverage of the entire aspects of hydrocephalus with current important classification categories and subtypes.Neurologia medico-chirurgica 01/2010; 50(9):859-69. · 0.49 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The specificity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the immature brain still remains unknown. In our data previously published, the transependymal intraparenchymal CSF pathway (the minor pathway) plays a significant role in various degrees in the alternative CSF passage. Now, there is a growing consensus in the age differences in the outcome of neuroendoscopic ventriculostomy in treatment of non-communicating types of hydrocephalus. The authors discuss the clinical significance of the specific CSF dynamics and propose the new aspect of classification of hydrocephalus with a theory in the development of CSF from the pathophysiological point of view. Between January 2001 and March 2004, 122 hydrocephalic children were registered at the Jikei University Hospital Women's & Children's Medical Center (JWCMC), Tokyo. Our retrospective study for the efficacy of neuroendoscopic ventriculostomy confirmed the significantly high failure rate of neuroendoscopic ventriculostomy in treating hydrocephalus in neonates and infants with non-communicating hydrocephalus as the initial impression. The prospective CSF dynamic studies using cine-mode MRI and CT ventriculo-cisternography were then routinely started. Altogether, 9 out of 29 (31%) endoscopically treated cases needed shunt placement 3-30 weeks (mean 7.9 weeks) after the endoscopic procedure(s) (publication in preparation). Five out of 11 (45%) neonates/infants under 3 months, 3/5 (60%) infants at 7-12 months, 10/10 (100%) toddlers at 1-4 years and 3/3 (100%) schoolchildren at 5-17 years were cured, as in the condition of "post-endoscopic ventriculostomy arrested hydrocephalus". The pattern of ventriculo-cisternography in neonatal/infantile cases revealed intraparenchymal predominant pattern (minor pathway) of the CSF dynamics rather than passage in the major pathway. The various basic investigations in rodents, cats and monkeys have suggested that CSF is absorbed not via Pacchionian bodies as the last end of the major pathway, which do not exist in these animals and are recognized after infantile period in human, but through the choroids plexus and the periventricular fenestrated venous capillaries into the deep venous channel. The high incidence of "failure to arrest hydrocephalus" by neuroendoscopic ventriculostomy in fetal, neonatal and infantile periods was considered to depend on the specific CSF dynamics, in which the major CSF pathway has not developed and the minor pathway has a significant role. PROPOSAL OF THEORY: We herein propose a new aspect of classification for hydrocephalus with special reference to the CSF circulation in the minor CSF pathway, i.e. "minor pathway hydrocephalus", differentiating the conventional classification by Dandy (communicating and non-communicating) or Russell (non-obstructive and obstructive) as "major pathway hydrocephalus". We also herein propose a hypothesis that the CSF dynamics develop in the theory of evolution from the immature brain, as in the animals with the minor CSF pathway predominance, towards matured adult human brain together with completion of the major CSF pathway: the "evolution theory in CSF dynamics".Child s Nervous System 08/2006; 22(7):662-9. · 1.24 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is possible to diagnose hydrocephalus prenatally based on the morphological appearance of the fetus on neurodiagnostic images; however, the prognosis of this disease shows wide variation. The authors previously proposed a classification system for the prediction of postnatal outcome based on progression of hydrocephalus and affected brain development, known as the "Perspective Classification of Congenital Hydrocephalus (PCCH)." In this study the authors have used their classification system to analyze long-term follow-up results obtained in each clinicoembryological stage of fetal hydrocephalus. Sixty-one fetuses with hydrocephalus were examined to predict postnatal outcome by using this newly developed classification. The authors' recently developed method of using heavily T2-weighted imaging with a superconducting magnet clearly delineated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space and the malformed brain and spinal cord. Imaging was achieved in less than 1 second per slice and required no sedation of the fetus. The technique appears to be simple and good at delineating intrauterine anatomy. Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in two fetuses at PCCH embryological Stage I (8-21 gestational weeks), in 28 fetuses at Stage II (22-31 weeks), and in 31 fetuses at Stage III (32-40 weeks). Among these 61 fetuses, clinicopathological typing showed that 19 had primary hydrocephalus (nine in Stage II and 10 in Stage III), 34 had dysgenetic hydrocephalus (two in Stage I, 16 in Stage II, and 16 in Stage III), and eight had secondary hydrocephalus (three in Stage II and five in Stage III). When the hydrocephalic state developed during PCCH Stage I or II, the prognosis was very poor, and only one of 18 fetuses with dysgenetic hydrocephalus and none of three fetuses with secondary hydrocephalus had an acceptable postnatal outcome. Even within the same category or subtype of fetal hydrocephalus, such as primary hydrocephalus in its simple form, or hydrocephalus with spina bifida aperta (myeloschisis), the postnatal outcomes differed depending on the time of onset of hydrocephalus. When the diagnosis of hydrocephalus was made during PCCH Stage II, the fetuses had a poorer postnatal outcome compared with those at Stage III (p < 0.05). It is emphasized that postnatal prognosis is not simply a function of the form of the diagnosis but is also dependent on the progression of hydrocephalus and the degree to which that process affects neuronal development. Early decompressive procedures, conventionally performed after but, hopefully, performed before birth, are indicated to obtain the optimal postnatal prognosis of fetuses with hydrocephalus diagnosed at PCCH Stage II.Journal of Neurosurgery 04/1998; 88(4):685-94. · 3.15 Impact Factor