Morphologic characteristics of idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasia using spectral-domain and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.
ABSTRACT Idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasia (IJT) is characteristically associated with pigmentary changes. Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (PS-SD-OCT) enables imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and similar melanin-containing structures based on specific polarization properties. This study examined IJT with the latest-generation SD-OCT and PS-SD-OCT, identifying pathophysiologically relevant characteristics of the retinal layers and RPE.
Twenty-two eyes of 12 patients with IJT were examined by PS-SD-OCT, with special focus on RPE detection and segmentation. Furthermore, SD-OCT technology (Cirrus, Spectralis, and 3D-OCT-1000) was applied. Characteristics of the retinal layers and RPE were evaluated. A classification system based on OCT characteristics of IJT was suggested.
Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography together with SD-OCT identified characteristic patterns of IJT, used to classify eyes into three distinct groups. Group 1 (5 eyes) revealed discrete alterations in the inner retinal layers; group 2 (12 eyes) showed irregularities of the junction between the inner and outer photoreceptor segments with outer retinal atrophy but an intact RPE. Group 3 (5 eyes) revealed RPE irregularities and loss in addition to intraretinal alterations and photoreceptor abnormalities.
This study described characteristic morphologic changes in IJT based on PS-SD-OCT and SD-OCT. Morphologic changes were classified, possibly leading to an OCT-based grading scheme. The intensity images of SD-OCT verified intraretinal and photoreceptor irregularities in great detail, whereas PS-SD-OCT additionally showed RPE alterations.