Article

Incorporation of the HIV-1 microbicide cyanovirin-N in a food product.

Laboratory of Retrovirology, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Rhode Island and Miriam Hospitals, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.65). 09/2011; 58(4):379-84. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31823643fe
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An urgent need exists for HIV-1 microbicides. Here, we describe the in vivo testing of lactic acid bacteria bioengineered to secrete cyanovirin-N. We fed pigtail macaques a yogurt formulation that used bioengineered strains as a starter culture. Cyanovirin-N expression could be detected in the rectal vault during and immediately after feeding. Ex vivo viral challenge of rectal tissue biopsies revealed that peak viral burden was significantly lower in tissue obtained from experimental animals compared with control animals. Formulation of candidate compounds in lactic acid bacteria and their oral administration seems to be a feasible strategy for mucosal delivery of microbicides.

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    ABSTRACT: Cyanovirin-N is a cyanobacterial lectin with potent antiviral activity, and has been the focus of extensive pre-clinical investigation as a potential prophylactic for the prevention of the sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we present a detailed analysis of carbohydrate recognition by this important protein, using a combination of computational methods, including extensive molecular dynamics simulations and Molecular-Mechanics/ Poisson--Boltzmann/Surface-Area (MM/PBSA) energetic analysis. The simulation results strongly suggest that the observed tendency of wildtype CVN to form domain-swapped dimers is the result of a previously unidentified cis-peptide bond present in the monomeric state. The energetic analysis additionally indicates that the highest-affinity ligand for CVN characterized to date (α-Man-(1,2)-α-Man-(1,2)-α-Man) is recognized asymmetrically by the two binding sites. Finally, we are able to provide a detailed map of the role of all binding site functional groups (both backbone and side chain) to various aspects of molecular recognition: general affinity for cognate ligands, specificity for distinct oligosaccharide targets and the asymmetric recognition of α-Man-(1,2)-α-Man-(1,2)-α-Man. Taken as a whole, these results complement past experimental characterization (both structural and thermodynamic) to provide the most complete understanding of carbohydrate recognition by CVN to date. The results also provide strong support for the application of similar approaches to the understanding of other protein--carbohydrate complexes.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 10/2012; · 10.68 Impact Factor

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