24 h-Sodium excretion and hydration status in children and adolescents--results of the DONALD Study.
ABSTRACT To describe actual data on intake, sources, age and time trends of urinary sodium excretion and to analyze the potential association between urinary sodium excretion and hydration status respective beverage consumption in a sample of healthy German children and adolescents.
Data of 1575 24 h-urine samples and weighed dietary records of 499 children (249 boys) aged 4-18 years of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study collected in 2003-2009 were analyzed using linear mixed effects regression models. Free water reserve (FWR, measured urine volume (ml/24 h) minus the obligatory urine volume (ml/24 h)) was used as a marker for hydration status.
Urinary sodium excretion was between 1.4 g/day and 3.2 g/day, showing a positive age trend but remained stable during the study period. In girls, there was a significant positive association between salt excretion and FWR (p = 0.04). Per g/MJ urinary sodium excretion, beverage intake increased by 0.05 g/MJ (boys) or 0.08 g/MJ (girls).
Hydration status was not affected by salt intake in this sample of healthy children and adolescents in a western life style, due to a compensatory increase in beverage consumption.
Article: Association between 24-hour urine sodium and potassium excretion and diet quality in six-year-old children: a cross sectional study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Limited data is available on sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake in young children estimated by 24 hour (24h) excretion in urine. The aim was to assess 24h urinary excretion of Na and K in six-year-old children and its relationship with diet quality. METHODS: The study population was a subsample of a national dietary survey, including six-year-old children living in the greater Reykjavik area (n=76). Three day weighed food records were used to estimate diet quality. Diet quality was defined as adherence to the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines. Na and K excretion was analyzed from 24h urine collections. PABA check was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The associations between Na and K excretion and diet quality were estimated by linear regression, adjusting for gender and energy intake. RESULTS: Valid urine collections and diet registrations were provided by 58 children. Na and K excretion was, mean (SD), 1.64 (0.54) g Na/24h (approx. 4.1 g salt/24h) and 1.22 (0.43) g K/24h. In covariate adjusted models Na excretion decreased by 0.16 g Na/24h (95% CI: 0.31, 0.06) per 1-unit increase in diet quality score (score range: 1--4) while K excretion was increased by 0.18 g K/24h (95% CI: 0.06, 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Na intake, estimated by 24h urinary excretion was on average higher than recommended. Increased diet quality was associated with lower Na excretion and higher K excretion in six-year-old children.Nutrition Journal 11/2012; 11(1):94. · 2.48 Impact Factor