Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are noncultivable commensals inhabiting the gut of various vertebrate species and have been shown to induce Th17 cells in mice. We present the complete genome sequences of both rat and mouse SFB isolated from SFB-monocolonized hosts. The rat and mouse SFB genomes each harbor a single circular chromosome of 1.52 and 1.59 Mb encoding 1346 and 1420 protein-coding genes, respectively. The overall nucleotide identity between the two genomes is 86%, and the substitution rate was estimated to be similar to that of the free-living E. coli. SFB genomes encode typical genes for anaerobic fermentation and spore and flagella formation, but lack most of the amino acid biosynthesis enzymes, reminiscent of pathogenic Clostridia, exhibiting large dependency on the host. However, SFB lack most of the clostridial virulence-related genes. Comparative analysis with clostridial genomes suggested possible mechanisms for host responses and specific adaptations in the intestine.
"Some SFBs belong to the candidate taxa known as Candidatus division Arthromitus, more recently referred to as Candidatus Savagella (Snel et al., 1995; Thompson, Mikaelyan & Brune, 2013). Phylogenetically speaking, these organisms form a discrete and distant lineage within the family Clostridiaceae, clustering within Clostridia Cluster I but divergent from other organisms within this cluster (Prakash et al., 2011). Candidatus division Arthromitus organisms are Gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria that are of long filamentous form consisting of segmented structures. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of concerns related to the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, antibiotic-free alternatives are greatly needed to prevent disease and promote animal growth. One of the current challenges facing commercial turkey production in Minnesota is difficulty obtaining flock average weights typical of the industry standard, and this condition has been coined "Light Turkey Syndrome" or LTS. This condition has been identified in Minnesota turkey flocks for at least five years, and it has been observed that average flock body weights never approach their genetic potential. However, a single causative agent responsible for these weight reductions has not been identified despite numerous efforts to do so. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacterial community composition within the small intestines of heavy and light turkey flocks using 16S rRNA sequencing, and to identify possible correlations between microbiome and average flock weight. This study also sought to define the temporal succession of bacteria occurring in the turkey ileum. Based upon 2.7 million sequences across nine different turkey flocks, dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified and compared between the flocks studied. OTUs that were associated with heavier weight flocks included those with similarity to Candidatus division Arthromitus and Clostridium bartlettii, while these flocks had decreased counts of several Lactobacillus species compared to lighter weight flocks. The core bacterial microbiome succession in commercial turkeys was also defined. Several defining markers of microbiome succession were identified, including the presence or abundance of Candidatus division Arthromitus, Lactobacillus aviarius, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Lactobacillus salivarius, and Clostridium bartlettii. Overall, the succession of the ileum bacterial microbiome in commercial turkeys proceeds in a predictable manner. Efforts to prevent disease and promote growth in the absence of antibiotics could involve target dominant bacteria identified in the turkey ileum that are associated with increased weight gain.
"SFB-specific proteins of unknown function may be candidates for this class of proteins. Other potential virulence factors include a fibronectin-binding protein that may mediate attachment, two collagenases and several flagellin genes that, unlike most other flagellin found in related bacterial species, are immunostimulatory and activate TLR5 on host cells  . Yet, TLR5 signals via MyD88, pleading against a crucial role of SFBderived flagellins in the stimulation of TH17 response. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Segmented Filamentous Bacteria (SFB) are present in the gut microbiota of a large number of vertebrate species where they are found intimately attached to the intestinal epithelium. SFB has recently attracted considerable attention due to its outstanding capacity to stimulate innate and adaptive host immune responses without causing pathology. Recent genomic analysis placed SFB between obligate and facultative symbionts, unraveled its highly auxotrophic needs, and provided a rationale for the complex SFB life-style in close contact with the epithelium. Herein, we examine how the SFB life-style may underlie its potent immunostimulatory properties and discuss how the trade-off set up between SFB and its hosts can simultaneously help to establish and maintain the ecological niche of SFB in the intestine and drive the post-natal maturation of the host gut immune barrier.
Seminars in Immunology 10/2013; 25(5). DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2013.09.001 · 5.17 Impact Factor
"intestinal phagocytes, induce IL-23 from CD103 + dendritic cells and are known to drive Th17 responses to enteric pathogens     . In addition to bacteria-associated molecules, extracellular ATP derived from the microbiota can as well activate the induction of Th17 cells . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gastrointestinal tract is an active player of the human immune system, participating in the innate and adaptive immune responses, keeping the homeostasis of the human being in a healthy status. However, most intestinal conditions are associated with an altered immune response, which implies the activation of CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells. Based on their cytokine secretion, transcription factor expression and immunological functions, the differentiated Th cells were initially subdivided into different lineages: Th1 (that express the transcription factor T-box (T-bet), secrete interferon (IFN)-γ and protect the host against intracellular infections) and Th2 (that express GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3), secrete interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and mediate host defense against helminths). Later, a new subset was identified, the Th17, which selectively produces IL-17A and is crucial for host defense against extracellular pathogens. More recently, a functional plasticity between the Th1 and Th17 lineages has been described, a process sometimes controversial that seems to play a key role in different inflammatory conditions, including those affecting the gastrointestinal system. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the regulation and functional role of Th17 cells in the gut, focusing on these newly identified features of this T cell subset, including plasticity, their relationship with regulatory T cells and their heterogeneity in the inflammatory microenvironment. A better understanding of these issues is critical to elucidate the role of Th17 cells in intestine immunity, and so for the design of novel therapeutic approaches for intestinal diseases specifically targeting Th17 cells.
International Reviews Of Immunology 09/2013; 32(5-6). DOI:10.3109/08830185.2013.834899 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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