Article

Lack of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption and attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Harrachgasse 21, Graz, Austria.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 09/2011; 1811(12):1011-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.08.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Triacylglycerols (TG) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and fatty acids in several tissues. The final step in TG biosynthesis is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. Lack of whole body DGAT1 is associated with reduced lipid-induced inflammation. Since one major component of atherosclerosis is chronic inflammation we hypothesized that DGAT1 deficiency might ameliorate atherosclerotic lesion development. We therefore crossbred Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with Dgat1(-/-) mice. ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Dgat1(-/-) mice were fed Western-type diet (WTD) for 9weeks and thereafter examined for plaque formation. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was substantially reduced in ApoE(-/-)Dgat1(-/-) compared with ApoE(-/-) mice in en face and aortic valve section analyses. The reduced lesion size was associated with decreased cholesterol uptake and absorption by the intestine, reduced plasma TG and cholesterol concentrations and increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The expression of adhesion molecules was reduced in aortas of ApoE(-/-)Dgat1(-/-) mice, which might be the reason for less migration capacities of monocytes and macrophages and the observed decreased amount of macrophages within the plaques. From our results we conclude that the lack of DGAT1 is atheroprotective, implicating an additional application of DGAT1 inhibitors with regard to maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and attenuating atherosclerosis.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
148 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SCOPE: Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated antioxidative and anti-inflammatory chalcone from hops, exhibits positive effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. Based on its favorable biological properties, we investigated whether XN attenuates atherosclerosis in western-type diet-fed apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE(-/-) ) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: XN supplementation markedly reduced plasma cholesterol concentrations, decreased atherosclerotic lesion area, and attenuated plasma concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. Decreased hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content, activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, phosphorylation and inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and reduced expression levels of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-2 and SREBP-1c mRNA indicate reduced lipogenesis in the liver of XN-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. Concomitant induction of hepatic mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a in ApoE(-/-) mice-administered XN suggests increased fatty acid beta-oxidation. Fecal cholesterol concentrations were also markedly increased in XN-fed ApoE(-/-) mice compared with mice fed western-type diet alone. CONCLUSION: The atheroprotective effects of XN might be attributed to combined beneficial effects on plasma cholesterol and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations and hepatic lipid metabolism via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 05/2013; · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Target substrate-specific hammerhead ribozyme cleaves the specific mRNA efficiently and results in the inhibition of gene expression. In humans, overproduction of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is positively associated with premature coronary artery diseases. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that long-term reduction of apoB gene expression using hammerhead ribozyme would result in inhibition of atherosclerosis development. We designed two hammerhead ribozymes targeted at the nucleotides of apoB mRNA GUC(2326) (designated RB1) and GUA(6679) (designated RB15), and we used self-complementary adeno-associated virus 8.2 (scAAV8.2) vector to deliver these active ribozymes of RB1, RB15, combination of RB1/RB15, and an inactive hammerhead ribozyme RB15 mutant to atherosclerosis-prone LDb mice (Ldlr(-/-)Apobec1(-/-)). LDb mice lack both low density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor (Ldlr(-/-)) and apoB mRNA editing enzyme (Apobec1(-/-)) genes and develop atherosclerosis spontaneously. After the RB1, RB15, or combination of RB1/RB15 ribozymes treatment, the LDb mice had significantly decreased plasma triglyceride and apoB levels, resulting in markedly decreased of atherosclerotic lesions, Furthermore, the active ribozymes treatment decreased the levels of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) mRNA and the levels of multiple diacylglycerol (DAG) molecular species. These results provide the first evidence that decreased apoB levels results to reduction of Dgat1 expression and triglyceride levels (TAG), which had a significant impact on the development of atherosclerosis.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e125; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.53; published online 1 October 2013.
    Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids. 01/2013; 2:e125.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are key transcription factors in cholesterol metabolism that regulate cholesterol biosynthesis/efflux and bile acid metabolism/excretion in the liver and numerous organs. In macrophages, LXR signaling modulates cholesterol handling and the inflammatory response, pathways involved in atherosclerosis. Since regulatory pathways of LXR transcription control are well understood, in the present study we aimed at identifying post-transcriptional regulators of LXR activity. MicroRNAs (miRs) are such post-transcriptional regulators of genes that in the canonical pathway mediate mRNA inactivation. In silico analysis identified miR-206 as a putative regulator of LXRα but not LXRβ. Indeed, as recently shown, we found that miR-206 represses LXRα activity and expression of LXRα and its target genes in hepatic cells. Interestingly, miR-206 regulates LXRα differently in macrophages. Stably overexpressing miR-206 in THP-1 human macrophages revealed an up-regulation and miR-206 knockdown led to a down-regulation of LXRα and its target genes. In support of these results, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from miR-206 KO mice also exhibited lower expression of LXRα target genes. The physiological relevance of these findings was proven by gain-and loss-of-function of miR-206; overexpression of miR-206 enhanced cholesterol efflux in human macrophages and knocking out miR-206 decreased cholesterol efflux from MPMs. Moreover, we show that miR-206 expression in macrophages is repressed by LXRα activation, while oxidized LDL and inflammatory stimuli profoundly induced miR-206 expression. We therefore propose a feed-back loop between miR-206 and LXRα that might be part of an LXR auto-regulatory mechanism to fine tune LXR activity.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
28 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014