Lack of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption and attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Harrachgasse 21, Graz, Austria.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 09/2011; 1811(12):1011-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.08.010
Source: PubMed


Triacylglycerols (TG) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and fatty acids in several tissues. The final step in TG biosynthesis is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. Lack of whole body DGAT1 is associated with reduced lipid-induced inflammation. Since one major component of atherosclerosis is chronic inflammation we hypothesized that DGAT1 deficiency might ameliorate atherosclerotic lesion development. We therefore crossbred Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with Dgat1(-/-) mice. ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Dgat1(-/-) mice were fed Western-type diet (WTD) for 9weeks and thereafter examined for plaque formation. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was substantially reduced in ApoE(-/-)Dgat1(-/-) compared with ApoE(-/-) mice in en face and aortic valve section analyses. The reduced lesion size was associated with decreased cholesterol uptake and absorption by the intestine, reduced plasma TG and cholesterol concentrations and increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The expression of adhesion molecules was reduced in aortas of ApoE(-/-)Dgat1(-/-) mice, which might be the reason for less migration capacities of monocytes and macrophages and the observed decreased amount of macrophages within the plaques. From our results we conclude that the lack of DGAT1 is atheroprotective, implicating an additional application of DGAT1 inhibitors with regard to maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and attenuating atherosclerosis.

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Available from: Prakash Doddapattar, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Dgat1 is suggested to be involved in the recycling of free fatty acids from triglyceride to re-esterifying the monoacylglycerol and DAG.33 A recent study shows that apoE−/− mice deficient of Dgat1 (ApoE−/−Dgat1−/−) have reduced atherosclerosis.15 This is the result of decreased inflammatory factors including decreased macrophages, and reduced expression of VCAM1, P-selectin, E-selectin, and MCP1 in the aorta. "
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    ABSTRACT: Calorie restriction results in leanness, which is linked to metabolic conditions that favor longevity. We show here that deficiency of the triglyceride synthesis enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which promotes leanness, also extends longevity without limiting food intake. Female DGAT1-deficient mice were protected from age-related increases in body fat, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation in white adipose tissue. This protection was accompanied by increased mean and maximal life spans of ~25% and ~10%, respectively. Middle-agedDgat1-/- mice exhibited several features associated with longevity, including decreased levels of circulating insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) and reduced fecundity. Thus, deletion of DGAT1 in mice provides a model of leanness and extended lifespan that is independent of calorie restriction.
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    ABSTRACT: Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) regulates the hydrolysis of acylglycerols and cholesteryl esters (CE) in various cells and organs, including enterocytes of the small intestine. The physiological role of this enzyme in enterocytes, however, stayed elusive. In the present study we generated mice lacking HSL exclusively in the small intestine (HSLiKO) to investigate the impact of HSL deficiency on intestinal lipid metabolism and the consequences on whole body lipid homeostasis. Chow diet-fed HSLiKO mice showed unchanged plasma lipid concentrations. In addition, feeding with high fat/high cholesterol (HF/HC) diet led to unaltered triglyceride but increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and CE accumulation in the small intestine. The same effect was observed after an acute cholesterol load. Gavaging of radioactively labeled cholesterol resulted in increased abundance of radioactivity in plasma, liver and small intestine of HSLiKO mice 4h post-gavaging. However, cholesterol absorption determined by the fecal dual-isotope ratio method revealed no significant difference, suggesting that HSLiKO mice take up the same amount of cholesterol but in an accelerated manner. mRNA expression levels of genes involved in intestinal cholesterol transport and esterification were unchanged but we observed downregulation of HMG-CoA reductase and synthase and consequently less intestinal cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together our study demonstrates that the lack of intestinal HSL leads to CE accumulation in the small intestine, accelerated cholesterol absorption and decreased cholesterol biosynthesis, indicating that HSL plays an important role in intestinal cholesterol homeostasis.
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