Altered expression of GABAA receptors (α4, γ2 subunit), potassium chloride cotransporter 2 and astrogliosis in tremor rat hippocampus
ABSTRACT Impaired GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R), potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2) and astrocytes are of particular importance to GABAergic transmission and thus involved in the development of increased seizure susceptibility. The tremor rat (TRM: tm/tm), a genetic mutant discovered in a Kyoto-Wistar colony, can manifest both absence-like seizures and tonic convulsions without any external stimuli. So far, there are no reports that can elucidate the effects of GABA(A)R (α4, γ2 subunit), KCC2 and astrocytes on TRMs. The present study was undertaken to detect the expressions of GABA(A)R α4, GABA(A)R γ2 and KCC2 in TRMs hippocampus at mRNA and protein levels. In this work, mRNA and protein expressions of GABA(A)R α4 were significantly elevated while GABA(A)R γ2 and KCC2 were both evidently decreased in TRMs hippocampus by real-time RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Furthermore, a dramatic elevation of KCC2 protein level was found after cerebroventricular injection with K252a to TRMs than that in the DMSO-treated TRMs. Besides, our present study also demonstrated that GFAP (a major component of astrocyte) immunoreactivity was much more intense in TRMs hippocampal CA1, CA3 and DG regions than that in control group with immnohistochemistry and confocal microscopic analyses. The protein expression of GFAP was also markedly elevated in TRMs hippocampus, suggesting that astrogliosis appeared in the TRM model. These data demonstrate that altered expressions of GABA(A)R (α4, γ2) and KCC2 and astrogliosis observed in TRMs hippocampus may provide us good therapeutic targets for the treatment of genetic epilepsy.
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ABSTRACT: As an endogenous inhibitor of glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission in mammalian central nervous system, neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a crucial role in regulating homeostasis of neuron excitability. Loss of balance between excitory and inhibitory neurotransmission is thought to be a chief mechanism of epileptogenesis. The abnormal expression of NPY and its receptors observed following seizures have been demonstrated to be related to the production of epilepsy. The tremor rat (TRM) is a hereditary epileptic animal model. So far, there is no report concerning whether NPY and its receptors may be involved in TRM pathogenesis. In this study, we focused on the expression of NPY and its three receptor subtypes: Y1R, Y2R and Y5R in the TRM brain. We first found the expression of NPY in TRM hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex was increased compared with control (Wistar) rats. The mRNA and protein expression of Y1R was down-regulated in hippocampus but up-regulated in temporal lobe cortex, whereas Y2R expression was significantly increased in both areas. There was no significant change of Y5R expression in either area. The immunohistochemistry data showed that Y1R, Y2R, Y5R were present throughout CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus (DG) and the entorhinal cortex which is included in the temporal lobe cortex of TRM. In conclusion, our results showed the altered expression of NPY, Y1R and Y2R but not Y5R in hippocampus and temporal lobe cortex of TRM brain. This abnormal expression may be associated with the generation of epileptiform activity and provide a candidate target for treatment of genetic epilepsy.Neuropeptides 01/2013; 48(2). DOI:10.1016/j.npep.2013.12.003 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that epilepsies are complex syndromes due to their multi-factorial origins and manifestations. Different mathematical and computational descriptions use appropriate methods to address nonlinear relationships, chaotic behaviors and emergent properties. These theoretical approaches can be divided into two major categories: descriptive, such as flowcharts, graphs and other statistical analyses, and explicative, which include both realistic and abstract models. Although these modeling tools have brought great advances, a common framework to guide their design, implementation and evaluation, with the goal of future integration, is still needed. In the current review, we discuss two examples of complexity analysis that can be performed with epilepsy data: behavioral sequences of temporal lobe seizures and alterations in an experimental cellular model. We also highlight the importance of the creation of model repositories for the epileptology field and encourage the development of mathematical descriptions of complex systems, together with more accurate simulation techniques. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Translational Epilepsy Research.Epilepsy & Behavior 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2012.09.029 · 2.26 Impact Factor