Article

Cognitive outcomes for extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight children in kindergarten.

Department of Psychology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (Impact Factor: 2.7). 09/2011; 17(6):1067-79. DOI: 10.1017/S135561771100107X
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Our objectives were to examine cognitive outcomes for extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, gestational age <28 weeks and/or birth weight <1000 g) children in kindergarten and the associations of these outcomes with neonatal factors, early childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, and socioeconomic status (SES). The sample comprised a hospital-based 2001-2003 birth cohort of 148 EPT/ELBW children (mean birth weight 818 g; mean gestational age 26 weeks) and a comparison group of 111 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls. Controlling for background factors, the EPT/ELBW group had pervasive deficits relative to the NBW group on a comprehensive test battery, with rates of cognitive deficits that were 3 to 6 times higher in the EPT/ELBW group. Deficits on a measure of response inhibition were found in 48% versus 10%, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 7.32 (3.32, 16.16), p < .001. Deficits on measures of executive function and motor and perceptual-motor abilities were found even when controlling for acquired verbal knowledge. Neonatal risk factors, early neurodevelopmental impairment, and lower SES were associated with higher rates of deficits within the EPT/ELBW group. The findings document both global and selective cognitive deficits in EPT/ELBW children at school entry and justify efforts at early identification and intervention.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
242 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preterm birth impacts brain development and leads to chronic deficits including cognitive delay, behavioral problems, and epilepsy. Premature loss of the subplate, a transient subcortical layer that guides development of the cerebral cortex and axonal refinement, has been implicated in these neurological disorders. Subplate neurons influence postnatal upregulation of the potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2 and maturation of γ-amino-butyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) subunits. We hypothesized that prenatal transient systemic hypoxia-ischemia (TSHI) in Sprague-Dawley rats that mimic brain injury from extreme prematurity in humans would cause premature subplate loss and affect cortical layer IV development. Further, we predicted that the neuroprotective agent erythropoietin (EPO) could attenuate the injury. Prenatal TSHI induced subplate neuronal loss via apoptosis. TSHI impaired cortical layer IV postnatal upregulation of KCC2 and GABAAR subunits, and postnatal EPO treatment mitigated the loss (n ≥ 8). To specifically address how subplate loss affects cortical development, we used in vitro mechanical subplate ablation in slice cultures (n ≥ 3) and found EPO treatment attenuates KCC2 loss. Together, these results show that subplate loss contributes to impaired cerebral development, and EPO treatment diminishes the damage. Limitation of premature subplate loss and the resultant impaired cortical development may minimize cerebral deficits suffered by extremely preterm infants.
    Cerebral Cortex 04/2014; · 6.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Executive functions (EFs) are interrelated cognitive processes that have been studied in relation to behavior, attention, academic achievement, and developmental disorders. Studies of EF skills assessed through parent report and performance-based measures show correlations between them ranging from none to modest. Few studies have examined the relationship between EF skills measured through parent report and performance-based measures in relation to adaptive function. The present study included preschool children born preterm as a population at high risk for EF impairments. Preschool children (N = 149) completed a battery of EF tasks that assess working memory, response inhibition, idea generation, and attention shifting or cognitive flexibility. Parents reported on children's EF and adaptive skills. Preterm children showed more parent-rated and performance-based EF impairments than did full-term children. The combined use of either parent report or performance-based measures resulted in the identification of a large number of children at risk for EF impairment, especially in the preterm group. Both parent report and performance-based EF measures were associated with children's adaptive function. EF skills are measurable in young child'ren, and we suggest that EF skills may serve as targets for intervention to improve functional outcomes. We recommend the use of both parent report and performance-based measures to characterize children's EF profiles and to customize treatment.
    Child Neuropsychology 04/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infants born preterm commonly suffer from a combination of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and infectious perinatal inflammatory insults that lead to cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, behavioral issues and epilepsy. Using a novel rat model of combined late gestation HI and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, we tested our hypothesis that inflammation from HI and LPS differentially affects gliosis, white matter development and motor impairment during the first postnatal month.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 08/2014; 11(1):131. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
30 Downloads
Available from
May 17, 2014