Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.
ABSTRACT Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in patients unable to tolerate or who have adherence issues or contraindications to other therapies.
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ABSTRACT: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in women after menopause, which is linked to an estrogen deficiency and characterized by an excessive loss of trabecular bone. Rubus coreanus and Astragalus membranaceus have been used for their various pharmacological properties in Asia as a traditional medicine. The present study evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effects of the optimal combination of R. coreanus and A. membranaceus in 7:3 mixture (RAM) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice by investigating bone biomechanical properties and the serum levels of TNF-α, osteocalcin, RANKL, OPG, and RANK-RANKL signal-related osteoclast differentiation markers. A total of 36 mature female outbred ICR (Institute of cancer research) strain mice (7 weeks) were divided into 6 groups with 7 mice in each group as follows: (1) Sham-operated control mice (Sham) received daily oral phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS) of equal volumes through gavage. (2) OVX mice received a daily oral gavage of PBS (OVX). (3) OVX mice treated daily with 50mg/kg b.w./day of RAM (4) with 100mg/kg b.w./day of RAM or (5) with 200mg/kg b.w./day of RAM via oral gavage. (6) OVX mice received i.p. injections of 17β-estradiol (E2) (0.1mg/kg b.w./day) three times per week for 12wk. Micro-CT images showed that oral administration of RAM to OVX mice prevented tibial bone loss, preserved trabecular bone microarchitecture, and improved bone biomechanical properties. RAM administration also showed recovery effects on the levels of TNF-α, OPG and RANKL concentration in OVX-states. Additionally, we found that the mechanism by which RAM elicited anti-osteoporotic effects was by down-regulating the expression of TRAF6 and NFATc1 in RANKL-RANK pathway, a route of osteoclast differentiation, followed by reducing the production of osteoclast differentiation factors, calcitonin receptors and cathepsin K. Our research strongly suggests that RAM can be clinically used in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.008 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vertebral fractures and trabecular bone loss are hallmarks of osteoporosis. However, 80% of fractures are non-vertebral and 70% of all bone lost is cortical and is produced by intracortical remodeling. The resulting cortical porosity increases bone fragility exponentially. Denosumab, a fully human anti-RANKL antibody, reduces the rate of bone remodeling more than alendronate. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of denosumab and alendronate on cortical and trabecular bone. Postmenopausal women, mean age 61years (range 50 to 70), were randomized double blind to placebo (n=82), alendronate 70mg weekly (n=82), or denosumab 60mg every 6months (n=83) for 12months. Porosity of the compact-appearing cortex (CC), outer and inner cortical transitional zones (OTZ, ITZ), and trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) of distal radius were quantified in vivo from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. Denosumab reduced remodeling more rapidly and completely than alendronate, reduced porosity of the three cortical regions at 6months, more so by 12months relative to baseline and controls, and 1.5- to 2-fold more so than alendronate. The respective changes at 12months were [mean (95% CI)]; CC: -1.26% (-1.61, -0.91) versus -0.48% (-0.96, 0.00, p=0.012; OTZ: -1.97% (-2.37, -1.56) versus -0.81% (-1.45, -0.17), p=0.003; and ITZ: -1.17% (-1.38, -0.97) versus -0.78% (-1.04, -0.52), p=0.021. Alendronate reduced porosity of the three cortical regions at 6months relative to baseline and controls but further decreased porosity of only the ITZ at 12months. By 12months, CC porosity was no different than baseline or controls, OTZ porosity was reduced only relative to baseline, not controls, while ITZ porosity was reduced relative to baseline and 6months, but not controls. Each treatment increased trabecular BV/TV volume similarly: 0.25% (0.19, 0.30) versus 0.19% (0.13, 0.30), p=0.208. The greater reduction in cortical porosity by denosumab may be due to greater inhibition of intracortical remodeling. Head to head studies are needed to determine whether differences in porosity result in differing fracture outcomes.Bone 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2013.11.016 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The worldwide incidence of hip fracture is increasing and is commonly associated with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a debilitating bone disease resulting in increased cost and morbidity to the elderly. The bones become porous and fragile increasing chances of fracture. Osteoclastic activity is increased in oestoporosis. Current therapies include bisphosphonates, estrogens, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and PTH (parathyroid hormone) . A lot of new drugs are likely to be approved and available for treatment of osetoprorosis, including the anti-RANK-ligand monoclonal antibody (denosumab), and cathepsin K inhibitors. This article highlights the new approaches for the treatment of osteoporosis that are in various stages of drug development.