Heating-induced bacteriological and biochemical modifications in human donor milk after holder pasteurisation.
ABSTRACT The objectives of the present study were to enumerate and characterize the pathogenic potential of the Bacillus population that may survive holder pasteurisation of human milk and to evaluate the nutritional damage of this treatment using the furosine and lactulose indexes.
Milk samples from 21 donors were heated at 62.5°C for 30 minutes. Bacterial counts, lactose, glucose, myoinositol, lactulose, and furosine were determined before and after the heat treatment. Some B cereus isolates that survived after pasteurisation were evaluated for toxigenic potential.
Nonpasteurised milk samples showed bacterial growth in most of the agar media tested. Bacterial survival after pasteurisation was observed in only 3 samples and, in these cases, the microorganisms isolated belonged to the species B cereus. Furosine could not be detected in any of the samples, whereas changes in lactose, glucose, and myoinositol concentrations after holder pasteurisation were not relevant. Lactulose was below the detection limit of the analytical method in nonpasteurised samples, whereas it was found at low levels in 62% of the samples after holder pasteurisation. The lactation period influenced myoinositol content because its concentration was significantly higher in transition milk than in mature or late lactation milk samples.
Holder pasteurisation led to the destruction of bacteria present initially in donor milk samples, except for some B cereus that did not display a high virulence potential and did not modify significantly the concentration of the compounds analyzed in the present study.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To quantify microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet as an indicator of disease risk to recipient infants.METHODS:Cross-sectional sample of human milk purchased via a popular US milk-sharing Web site (2012). Individuals advertising milk were contacted to arrange purchase, and milk was shipped to a rented mailbox in Ohio. The Internet milk samples (n = 101) were compared with unpasteurized samples of milk donated to a milk bank (n = 20).RESULTS:Most (74%) Internet milk samples were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had >10(4) colony-forming units/mL total aerobic count. They exhibited higher mean total aerobic, total Gram-negative, coliform, and Staphylococcus sp counts than milk bank samples. Growth of most species was positively associated with days in transit (total aerobic count [log10 colony-forming units/mL] β = 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.05]), and negatively associated with number of months since the milk was expressed (β = -0.36 [95% confidence interval: -0.55 to -0.16]), per simple linear regression. No samples were HIV type 1 RNA-positive; 21% of Internet samples were cytomegalovirus DNA-positive.CONCLUSIONS:Human milk purchased via the Internet exhibited high overall bacterial growth and frequent contamination with pathogenic bacteria, reflecting poor collection, storage, or shipping practices. Infants consuming this milk are at risk for negative outcomes, particularly if born preterm or are medically compromised. Increased use of lactation support services may begin to address the milk supply gap for women who want to feed their child human milk but cannot meet his or her needs.PEDIATRICS 10/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
Article: Response to Sakamoto et al.Breastfeeding Medicine 02/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To validate the health and lifestyle questionnaire answered by donors to a human milk bank with respect to the presence of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine levels in donor milk. A total of 400 human milk samples from 63 donors were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of 14 illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine. Demographics and clinical and lifestyle data (illegal drugs, tobacco, and caffeinated beverage use) were collected from the required screening questionnaire of a human milk bank. The relationship between the 2 evaluation techniques was determined. Illegal drugs were not found in donor milk. Nicotine (46.1 ng/mL) and cotinine (138.6 ng/mL) were quantified in one milk sample from a donor who did not report tobacco use in the questionnaire (1.6% false negative). Caffeine was detected in 45.3% (181/400) of the total milk samples, with a mean concentration of 496 ± 778 ng/mL. The sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire to detect caffeine in donor milk was 46% and 77%, respectively. The lifestyle questionnaire is reliable for the assessment of illicit drug use by donors to a human milk bank, but there are certain limitations regarding the identification of second-hand smoke exposure and the disclosure of consumption of caffeinated beverages. Data such as smoking habits of partners, type and volume of beverage or food containing caffeine, method of preparation, and time of day of consumption should be collected by the questionnaire.The Journal of pediatrics 12/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor