Type II Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma: A Distinct Aggressive Lymphoma With Frequent gamma delta T-cell Receptor Expression
ABSTRACT Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), an uncommon lymphoma of intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes, occurs with a higher frequency in northern Europe due to association with celiac disease. Data on the occurrence of EATL in the Asian population, among whom celiac disease is very rare, are conflicting. This study aimed to characterize EATL encountered in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. Eighteen cases were identified, all fulfilling the criteria of type II rather than classical EATL. The patients, including 13 men and 5 women, had a median age of 62 years. Most presented with small bowel perforation, and there was no history of malabsorption. The clinical course was aggressive, with 14 of 16 patients dying of progressive disease or complications, usually within 1 year. The histologic features were practically identical in all cases. The central zone of the tumor showed ulceration with or without perforation and was characterized by monotonous transmural infiltration of the bowel by small-sized or medium-sized lymphoma cells with few admixed inflammatory cells and no coagulative necrosis. The peripheral zone featured lateral spread of lymphoma cells in the mucosa, accompanied by variable involvement of the submucosa and muscularis. In all cases, there was an intraepithelial lymphocytosis zone contiguous or discontinuous with the peripheral zone, which was characterized by infiltration of the intestinal epithelium by nonatypical small lymphocytes, and not accompanied by other histologic changes of enteropathy. The most common phenotype of the lymphoma cells was CD3+, CD5-, CD4-, CD8+, CD56+, TIA1+, CD30-, and Epstein-Barr virus, and 2 cases showed aberrant expression of CD20. A remarkable finding was that 14 (78%) cases expressed γδ T-cell receptor, and only 6 (33%) expressed αβ T-cell receptor (with 3 cases coexpressing both T-cell receptors and 1 case expressing neither). The immunophenotype of the intraepithelial lymphocytes was either discordant (particularly with respect to CD8 and CD56 expressions) or concordant with the lymphoma cells of the corresponding cases. Thus, this study shows that EATL occurring in the Chinese population is exclusively of type II. In contrast to several studies, intraepithelial lymphocytosis can be consistently demonstrated and this component seems to represent a precursor lesion of EATL rather than a manifestation of celiac disease. In view of the differences in epidemiology and clinicopathologic features, we believe it is justified to separate out type II EATL from the EATL category as a distinct form of lymphoma, for which we propose the designation "monomorphic intestinal T-cell lymphoma."
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ABSTRACT: Lymphomas arising from NK or γδ-T cells are very aggressive diseases and little is known regarding their pathogenesis. Here we report frequent activating mutations of STAT3 and STAT5B in NK/T-cell lymphomas (n=51), γδ-T-cell lymphomas (n=43) and their cell lines (n=9) through next generation and/or Sanger sequencing. STAT5B N642H is particularly frequent in all forms of γδ-T-cell lymphomas. STAT3 and STAT5B mutations are associated with increased phosphorylated protein and a growth advantage to transduced cell lines or normal NK cells. Growth-promoting activity of the mutants can be partially inhibited by a JAK1/2 inhibitor. Molecular modelling and surface plasmon resonance measurements of the N642H mutant indicate a marked increase in binding affinity of the phosphotyrosine-Y699 with the mutant histidine. This is associated with the prolonged persistence of the mutant phosphoSTAT5B and marked increase of binding to target sites. Our findings suggest that JAK-STAT pathway inhibition may represent a therapeutic strategy.Nature Communications 01/2015; 6:6025. DOI:10.1038/ncomms7025 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is most commonly encountered in the soft tissue or bone in children and young adults, and its involvement in the intestines is exceedingly rare. To the best of our knowledge, eighteen cases have been reported to date. The present study reports three cases of PNET arising in the mesentery and ileocecum in 59- and 22-year-old males and a 36-year-old female. Computed tomography revealed a solid mass in the lower abdomen, with areas of cystic changes. Microscopically, the tumors were composed of small round cells arranged in sheets and rosettes with scant cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei and a high mitotic rate. The tumor cells were immunopositive for CD99 and FLI1. EWS/FLI1 translocations were detected in all cases. Case 1 and case 2 underwent tumor resection without any preoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy or biological therapy. Case 3 underwent tumor resection and received eight cycles of IAP chemotherapy (2.0 mg ifosfamide, 80 mg epirubicin, 30 mg cisplatin 30mg). Case 3 was followed up for 34 months until they succumbed to peritoneal recurrence, whereas the other cases were not followed up. The incidence of these small round-cell tumors in the intestinal system, their clinical and pathological features and differential diagnosis are discussed with a review of the literature.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 04/2015; 9(4):1299-1303. DOI:10.3892/etm.2015.2242 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large variety of lymphoma types may develop as primary intestinal neoplasms in the small intestines or, less often, in the colorectum. Among these are a few entities such as enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma or immunoproliferative small intestinal disease that, essentially, do not arise elsewhere than in the gastrointestinal tract. In most instances the primary intestinal lymphomas belong to entities that also occur in lymph nodes or other mucosal sites, and may show some peculiar features. In the case of follicular lymphoma, important differences exist between the classical nodal cases and the intestinal cases, considered as a variant of the disease. It is likely that the local intestinal mucosal microenvironment is a determinant in influencing the pathobiological features of the disease. In this review we will present an update on the clinical, pathological and molecular features of the lymphoid neoplasms that most commonly involve the intestines, incorporating recent developments with respect to their pathobiology and classification. We will emphasize and discuss the major differential diagnostic problems encountered in practice, including the benign reactive or atypical lymphoid hyperplasias, indolent lymphoproliferative disorders of T or natural killer (NK) cells, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferations.Histopathology 01/2015; 66(1). DOI:10.1111/his.12596 · 3.30 Impact Factor