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Jerome A. Orosz, Jul 01, 2015 Available from:### Click to see the full-text of:

Article: Kepler-16: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet

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##### Article: Planetary Orbital Equations in Externally-Perturbed Systems: Position and Velocity-Dependent Forces

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**ABSTRACT:**The increasing number and variety of extrasolar planets illustrates the importance of characterizing planetary perturbations. Planetary orbits are typically described by physically intuitive orbital elements. Here, we explicitly express the equations of motion of the unaveraged perturbed two-body problem in terms of planetary orbital elements by using a generalized form of Gauss' equations. We consider a varied set of position and velocity-dependent perturbations, and also derive relevant specific cases of the equations: when they are averaged over fast variables (the "adiabatic" approximation), and in the prograde and retrograde planar cases. In each instance, we delineate the properties of the equations. As brief demonstrations of potential applications, we consider the effect of Galactic tides. We measure the effect on the widest-known exoplanet orbit, Sedna-like objects, and distant scattered disk objects, particularly with regard to where the adiabatic approximation breaks down. The Mathematica code which can help derive the equations is freely available upon request.Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 10/2012; 115(2). DOI:10.1007/s10569-012-9455-6 · 2.08 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**More than 800 confirmed exoplanets are currently known. However, the number of exoplanets known in binary star systems is far less. These planets are in wide binaries with stellar orbital periods of decades or longer. The planets can be either circumbinary (P-type) or circumstellar (S-type). Most of the known binaries with planets are S-type systems. The existence of planets in binary star systems tests models of planet formation. In the case of S-type orbits the protoplanetary disk surrounding one star is tidally and thermally perturbed by the companion star. Theoretical studies have indicated that planet formation may be impossible if the stars are closer than 20-100 AU. But Gamma Cep and HD196885 have planets that are at 20 AU. HR 7162 has a planet inside this limit (19 AU). This paper reports the progress of a search for exoplanets with S-type orbits in short-period binary star systems. The selected targets have stellar orbital periods of just a few days. These systems are eclipsing binaries so that exoplanet transits, if planets exist, will be highly likely. Furthermore, the possible range of planetary orbital periods can be predicted. From this it is possible to establish when the orbital phases of all possible planetary period have been sufficiently sampled. So by this technique null detections can establish a lack of planets above a certain size, set by photometric precision. We report the results for 8 binary star systems03/2012; 29(1):41-45. DOI:10.5140/JASS.2012.29.1.041 - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We use the circumbinary planetary system Kepler-16b as an example to specify some considerations that may be of interest to astrobiologists regarding the dynamic nature of habitable zones around close double star systems.