Coffee consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of stroke. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to quantitatively assess the association between coffee consumption and stroke risk. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase from January 1966 through May 2011 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Prospective studies in which investigators reported relative risks of stroke for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model. Eleven prospective studies, with 10,003 cases of stroke and 479,689 participants, met the inclusion criteria. There was some evidence of a nonlinear association between coffee consumption and risk of stroke (P for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with no coffee consumption, the relative risks of stroke were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.78, 0.94) for 2 cups of coffee per day, 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.92) for 3-4 cups/day, 0.87 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.97) for 6 cups/day, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.08) for 8 cups/day. There was marginal between-study heterogeneity among study-specific trends (I₂ = 12% and I₂ = 20% for the first and second spline transformations, respectively). Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that moderate coffee consumption may be weakly inversely associated with risk of stroke.
"Between-study heterogeneity was assessed by the I 2 statistic (I 2 < 30%, no between-study heterogeneity or marginal between-study heterogeneity; I 2 = 30–75%, mild heterogeneity; I 2 > 75%, notable heterogeneity) (Larsson and Orsini, 2011 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although radon exposure (RE) has been confirmed to increase the risk of lung cancer (LC), questions remain about the shape of the dose-response relationship between RE and the risk of LC. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose-response association between residential and occupational exposure to radon and the risk of LC. All cohort and case-control studies published in English and Chinese on Embase, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) digital databases through November 2013 were identified systematically. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, odds ratio, standardized mortality ratio, standardized incidence ratio, or standardized rate ratio) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. We derived meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models taking into account the correlation between estimates. Restricted cubic splines and generalized least-squares regression methods were used to model a potential curvilinear relationship and to carry out a dose-response meta-analysis. Stratified analysis, sensitivity analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. Sixty publications fulfilling the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis were finally included. Occupational RE was associated with LC [risk ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67-2.09; I=92.2%; 27 prospective studies], for pooled risk estimate of the: standardized mortality ratio [2.00 (95% CI=1.82-2.32)]; standardized incidence ratio [1.45 (95% CI=1.20-1.74)]; relative risk [2.10 (95% CI=1.64-2.69)]. In a subgroup analysis of uranium miners and residents exposed to occupational uranium, the summary risk was 2.23 (95% CI=1.86-2.68) and 1.23 (95% CI=1.05-1.44). The overall meta-analysis showed evidence of a nonlinear association between RE and the risk of LC (Pnonlinearity<0.014); in addition, the point value of residential radon also improved the results quantitatively, where odds ratios were 1.11 (95% CI=1.07-1.15) and 1.21 (95% CI=1.14-1.29) when the radon concentration was at the point of 100 and 200 Bq/m compared with the lowest. For 17 prospective studies with at least three categories of occupational cumulative radon dose, the dose-risk model estimated a risk ratio of 1.26 (95% CI=1.21-1.30) for 100 working level months and 1.51 (95% CI=1.38-1.65) for 200 working level months, respectively. The assessment of risk of bias within individual studies and across studies indicated risk that was unlikely to alter these results markedly. This meta-analysis shows a nonlinear dose-response association between environmental RE and the risk of LC. This increased risk is particularly apparent when the cumulative exposure to radon is well beyond that resulting from exposure to the recommended limit concentration for a prolonged period of time.
European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 08/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000066 · 3.03 Impact Factor
"A study showed that the long-term moderate consumption of coffee can provide protective effects (reducing the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by 10%–20%) in healthy individuals yet detrimental effects when intake was high . In agreement, Larsson and Orsini  reported that it is the moderate coffee consumption (3-4 cups/day) that reduces the risk of stroke. Additionally, one study showed that coffee consumption (more than 4 cups/day) in men was not associated with increased risk of stroke  while studies performed in Swedish and USA women have indicated that habitual intake of coffee (from 1 to 5 or more cups/day) was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of total stroke , cerebral infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage but not intracerebral hemorrhage . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes). Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke.
Mediators of Inflammation 08/2014; 2014:805198. DOI:10.1155/2014/805198 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"Forest plots were used to visually assess the RR estimates and corresponding 95% CIs. We also tested the nonlinear relationship between tea consumption and cancer risk by modeling tea consumption levels by using restricted cubic splines with 3 knots at fixed percentiles (10%, 50%, and 90%) of the distribution as described by Larsson and Orsini [36,37]. A P value for nonlinearity was calculated by testing the null hypothesis that the coefficient of the second and third spline was equal to zero. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize evidence of the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast, colorectal, liver, prostate, and stomach cancer.
We searched PubMed and two other databases. Prospective studies that reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for >=3 categories of tea consumption were included. We estimated an overall RR with 95% CI for an increase of three cups/day of tea consumption, and, usingrestricted cubic splines, we examined a nonlinear association between tea consumption and cancer risk.
Forty-one prospective studies, with a total of 3,027,702 participants and 49,103 cancer cases, were included. From the pooled overall RRs, no inverse association between tea consumption and risk of five major cancers was observed. However, subgroup analysis showed that increase in consumption of three cups of black tea per day was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32).
Ourresults did not show a protective role of tea in five major cancers. Additional large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a convincing case for associations.
BMC Cancer 03/2014; 14(1):197. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-197 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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