Water Doesn't Run Uphill (by Itself)⁎

University of California, San Francisco, Echocardiography Laboratory, San Francisco, California.
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging (Impact Factor: 7.19). 09/2011; 4(9):955-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2011.08.005
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Available from: Nelson B Schiller, Aug 21, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the predictive ability of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and end-diastolic pulmonary regurgitation (EDPR) gradients in outpatients with coronary artery disease. The TR and EDPR gradients, in conjunction with right atrial pressure, provide Doppler estimates of pulmonary artery systolic and diastolic pressures. We hypothesized that increases in TR or EDPR gradients in stable coronary artery disease would predict heart failure (HF) hospitalization or cardiovascular (CV) death. We measured TR and EDPR gradients in 717 adults with completed outcome adjudications who were recruited for the Heart and Soul Study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for HF hospitalization, CV death, all-cause death, and the combined end point. Multivariate adjustments were made for age, gender, race, history of CV or pulmonary disease, functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction. There were 63 HF hospitalizations, 19 CV deaths, and 86 all-cause deaths at the 3-year follow-up. There were 466 measurable EDPR gradients and 573 measurable TR gradients. Age-adjusted ORs for EDPR >5 mm Hg predicted HF hospitalization (2.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.5, p = 0.006), all-cause death (2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.4, p = 0.002), and HF hospitalization or CV death (2.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 5.2, p = 0.004). Age-adjusted OR for TR >30 mm Hg predicted HF hospitalization (3.4, 95% CI 1.9 to 6.2, p < 0.0001) and HF hospitalization or CV death (3.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 5.3, p = 0.0001). Multivariate adjusted OR per 5-mm Hg incremental increases in EDPR predicted HF hospitalization or CV death (1.9, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.6, p = 0.046) and all-cause death (1.7, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.8, p = 0.03). Multivariate adjusted OR per 10-mm Hg incremental increases in TR predicted HF hospitalization or CV death (1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4, p = 0.008). Increases in EDPR or TR gradients predict HF hospitalization or CV death among ambulatory adults with coronary artery disease.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate a simple noninvasive means of estimating right atrial (RA) pressure, the respiratory motion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) was analyzed by 2-dimensional echocardiography in 83 patients. Expiratory and inspiratory IVC diameters and percent collapse (caval index) were measured in subcostal views within 2 cm of the right atrium. Parameters were correlated with RA pressure by flotation catheter within 24 hours of the echocardiogram (38 were simultaneous). Correlations between RA pressure (range 0 to 28 mm Hg), expiratory and inspiratory diameters and caval index were 0.48, 0.71 and 0.75, respectively. Of 48 patients with caval indexes less than 50%, 41 (89%) had RA pressure greater than or equal to 10 mm Hg (mean +/- standard deviation, 15 +/- 6), while 30 of 35 patients (86%) with caval indexes greater than or equal to 50% had RA pressure less than 10 mm Hg (mean 6 +/- 5). Sensitivity and specificity for discrimination of RA pressure greater than or equal to or less than 10 mm Hg were maximized at the 50% level of collapse. Thus, IVC respiratory collapse on echocardiography is easily imaged and can be used to estimate RA pressure. A caval index greater than or equal to 50% indicates RA pressure less than 10 mm Hg, and caval indexes less than 50% indicate RA pressure greater than or equal to 10 Hg.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluated an alternative echocardiographic method to calculate mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP). One hundred two patients were studied with simultaneous right-heart catheterization (RHC) and echocardiography. MPAP was calculated by adding the right ventricular-right atrial mean systolic gradient to right atrial pressure. The mean difference between MPAP calculated using this method and RHC-derived MPAP was -1.6 mm Hg, less than that of traditional systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP; -6.4 mm Hg) and MPAP estimated using the pulmonary regurgitation method (-13.9 mm Hg). The median absolute percentage difference of the MPAP calculations relative to RHC was significantly less with this method than with the pulmonary regurgitation method (18% vs 71%; P < .001) and similar to the SPAP method (both 18%; P = .30). MPAP calculated using the proposed method is as accurate as SPAP calculation and less variable than previous methods, thus allowing widespread clinical use.
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