3D echocardiography to evaluate right atrial pressure in acutely decompensated heart failure correlation with invasive hemodynamics.
ABSTRACT This study examined the utility of 3-dimensional right atrial volume index (3D-RAVi), combined with 2-dimensional echocardiographic (2DE) parameters, for the identification of elevated right atrial pressure (RAP) in patients with heart failure.
Accurate noninvasive determination of RAP is clinically important for the management of patients with heart failure. Although 2DE methods have been used to noninvasively estimate RAP, the accuracy of these parameters has limitations when estimating RAP in an individual patient. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) provides tomographic imaging of right atrial volume that may be helpful in refining the noninvasive assessment of hemodynamics in patients with heart failure.
2DE and 3DE studies were examined in 40 initial patients who were admitted for acutely decompensated heart failure. Simultaneous pulmonary artery catheter monitoring was performed. The relationship between echocardiographic parameters and RAP was examined in this derivation group. The findings from the derivation group were then prospectively tested in a validation group of 40 additional patients.
Mean RAP was 11 ± 5 mm Hg (range 2 to 22 mm Hg). 3D-RAVi correlated with RAP (r = 0.51, p < 0.001), whereas 2-dimensional right atrial volume index did not. Inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter ≥2 cm and IVC respirophasic collapse <40% also correlated with RAP (p < 0.001 and p = 0.028, respectively). Based on receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis, 3D-RAVi ≥35 ml/m(2) was the optimal 3D-RAVi cutpoint for identifying RAP >10 mm Hg. The value of 3D-RAVi ≥35 ml/m(2), combined with IVC measures, for predicting RAP >10 mm Hg was prospectively tested in the validation group. 3D-RAVi ≥35 ml/m(2) in combination with IVC ≥2 cm had a high accuracy (88%) for identifying RAP >10 mm Hg and had a higher accuracy than the combination of IVC ≥2 cm and IVC collapse <40% (accuracy: 68%, p = 0.038).
In patients with heart failure, 3D-RAVi in conjunction with IVC parameters has a high accuracy for detection of elevated RAP. The addition of 3D-RAVi to 2DE methods may be helpful in the noninvasive estimation of right atrial pressure.
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ABSTRACT: Kisspeptins are products of the KiSS-1 gene, which bind to a G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR54. Mutations or targeted disruptions in the GPR54 gene cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and mice, suggesting that kisspeptin signaling may be important for the regulation of gonadotropin secretion. To examine the effects of kisspeptin-54 (metastin) and kisspeptin-10 (the biologically active C-terminal decapeptide) on gonadotropin secretion in the mouse, we administered the kisspeptins directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle of the brain and demonstrated that both peptides stimulate LH secretion. Further characterization of kisspeptin-54 demonstrated that it stimulated both LH and FSH secretion, at doses as low as 1 fmol; moreover, this effect was shown to be blocked by pretreatment with acyline, a potent GnRH antagonist. To learn more about the functional anatomy of kisspeptins, we mapped the distribution of KiSS-1 mRNA in the hypothalamus. We observed that KiSS-1 mRNA is expressed in areas of the hypothalamus implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion, including the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, the periventricular nucleus, and the arcuate nucleus. We conclude that kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling may be part of the hypothalamic circuitry that governs the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH.Endocrinology 10/2004; 145(9):4073-7. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kisspeptins, the peptide products of the KiSS-1 gene, were identified in 2001 as natural ligands of the previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54. They include, among others, metastin and kisspeptin-10. The known biological functions of kisspeptins were initially restricted to their ability to suppress tumour metastasis, hence the name of metastin. However, in late 2003, two groups independently reported that loss-of-function mutations of the GPR54 gene are linked to absence of puberty onset and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in humans--a phenotype that was reproduced in GPR54-null mice. Those seminal observations revealed a totally unexpected, fundamental role of the KiSS-1/GPR54 system in control of puberty and reproductive function and boosted an extraordinary interest for the characterization of these novel facets of kisspeptin physiology. Indeed, in the last 2 years, metastin and kisspeptin-10 have been demonstrated as very potent stimulators of the gonadotrophic axis, in a number of species and through different routes of administration. In addition, the hypothalamic KiSS-1/GPR54 system has been proven as an essential gatekeeper of GnRH neurons, involved in their activation at puberty and their regulation by gonadal steroids and (probably) metabolic factors. This review comprehensively examines the experimental evidence obtained to date supporting a pivotal role of kisspeptins and GPR54 in the control of reproduction.Human Reproduction Update 01/2006; 12(5):631-9. · 8.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing (AS) is a mechanism by which the coding diversity of the genome can be greatly increased. Rates of AS are known to vary according to the complexity of eukaryotic species potentially explaining the tremendous phenotypic diversity among species with similar numbers of coding genes. Little is known, however, about the nature or rate of AS in teleost fish. Here, we report the characteristics of AS in teleost fish and classification and frequency of five canonical AS types. We conducted both same-species and cross-species analysis utilizing the Genome Mapping and Alignment Program (GMAP) and an AS pipeline (ASpipe) to study AS in four genome-enabled species (Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and Takifugu rubripes) and one species lacking a complete genome sequence, Ictalurus punctatus. AS frequency was lowest in the highly duplicated genome of zebrafish (17% of mapped genes). The compact genome of the pufferfish showed the highest occurrence of AS (approximately 43% of mapped genes). An inverse correlation between AS frequency and genome size was consistent across all analyzed species. Cross-species comparisons utilizing zebrafish as the reference genome allowed the identification of additional putative AS genes not revealed by zebrafish transcripts. Approximately, 50% of AS genes identified by same-species comparisons were shared among two or more species. A searchable website, the Teleost Alternative Splicing Database, was created to allow easy identification and visualization of AS transcripts in the studied teleost genomes. Our results and associated database should further our understanding of alternative splicing as an important functional and evolutionary mechanism in the genomes of teleost fish.MGG Molecular & General Genetics 04/2010; 283(6):531-9. · 2.58 Impact Factor