Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen presenting as a rapidly growing tumour in a patient with rectal cancer.

Institute of Pathology, Technische Universität München, Trogerstrasse 18, Munich, 81675, Germany.
Case Reports 09/2009; 2009. DOI: 10.1136/bcr.11.2008.1191
Source: PubMed


A patient with rectal cancer developed a rapidly growing splenic mass 2 years after cancer treatment. Since a metastatic process could not be ruled out, splenectomy was performed, and the tumour emerged as a sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen. SANT is a rare, recently recognised, non-neoplastic vascular lesion of the spleen that radiologically may be difficult to distinguish from vascular splenic lesions such as splenic hamartoma, haemangioma or littoral cell angioma. However, morphologically and immunohistochemically it is separated from those tumours by its unique nodular angiomatoid proliferation pattern. SANT is considered to be a benign lesion. This case is reported because of its important clinical impact for the differential diagnosis of splenic masses. Data regarding growth rates of these lesions are scarce and a growth progression as in this case, that finally led to the indication for splenectomy due to lingering suspicion of malignancy, is novel.

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    ABSTRACT: Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation of the spleen (SANT) is a rare benign vascular lesion of the spleen with extensive sclerosis and unknown etiology. We report a new case of SANT of the spleen found in a 53-year-old female following detection of a splenic mass on a routine computed tomography (CT). The patient underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic splenectomy and the specimen was sent for histopathologic examination. A review of the 97 reported cases of SANT found in the literature was undertaken. There were 43 males and 54 females with a median age of 46 years (range: 11-82 years). SANT is classically considered to be a female predominant disease, however 44.3% of reported case were male and the gender predilection may soon be neutralized as more cases are reported. 65 of the 97 (67%) patients were in 30-60 year age group. The majority of lesions (n=50) were incidentally found on imaging, and for those patients presenting with symptoms, abdominal pain (n=18) was the predominant symptom. The diagnosis of SANT should be considered in any patient presenting with a splenic lesion that contains an angiomatoid or inflammatory component. As the differential diagnosis for SANT includes malignant pathologies, and currently no reliable diagnostic radiological feature has been identified to differentiate between these conditions, SANT will continue to be diagnosed on the basis of surgical histopathology.
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