Sustained hyperglycemia is considered as a major cause of sexual and erectile dysfunction in human population. Curculigo orchioides (CO) is considered as a sexual tonic in Ayurvedic system of medicine with potent antioxidant and adaptogenic properties. The aqueous extract of the herb was evaluated for its effectiveness against streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic stress and subsequent sexual dysfunction due to hyperglycemia in male rats. Six groups with eight male rats in each group were used for this study and the study was carried out for 28 days. The body and organ weights of the animals were recorded. Behavioral analysis of rats was undertaken to observe the effect on mount, ejaculation and intromission (latencies and frequencies) and hesitation time. Blood glucose and serum testosterone levels were determined 28 days past treatment with CO at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) doses. Glibenclamide and sildenafil citrate were used as positive controls. This deleterious effect of sustained hyperglycemia and associated stress was prominently ameliorated in animals treated with aqueous extract of CO. CO treatment was helpful in ameliorating the damage caused by sustained hyperglycemia evidenced in the principle parameters viz. male sexual behavior, sperm count, penile erection index and seminal fructose content Antioxidant and anabolic activities of the extract under investigation could be a major attribute in preserving the sexual functions in hyperglycemic male rats. The study validates the use of CO in traditional medicine for curing diabetes-induced sexual dysfunction and compromised sexual potency.
"Furthermore, obesity and diabetes are associated with infertile conditions such as polycystic ovarian syndrome  and low sperm counts . Studies in rodents suggest that diabetes decreases sperm counts and affects various aspects of male reproduction , . Interestingly, a study in men with diabetes revealed that conventional semen parameters were not different between diabetic and non-diabetic men, however there were significantly more nuclear DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial DNA deletions in sperm from diabetic patients which may impair their reproductive capability . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are key mediators of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling. In mice, deletion of Irs1 is associated with profound growth retardation and increased longevity whereas Irs2-deficiency causes diabetes and female infertility. Clinical studies suggest that diabetes and obesity diminish male fertility. However, the role of IRS proteins in male reproduction is unknown. We observed that testis weight is reduced by 45% in Irs2-deficient mice as compared with control males. The weight of these organs in Irs1 (-/-) males was similar to controls; however, since Irs1-deficient mice are 50% smaller, testis weight:body weight was increased in this model. Neonatal Irs2 (-/-) mice also exhibited reduced testicular size, suggesting that impairments in this model occur during development. Histological examination of testicular cross sections from Irs2 (-/-) mice revealed normal cellular associations without obvious abnormalities in the seminiferous epithelium. Reduced testicular weight was associated with fewer Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, elongated spermatids, and epididymal spermatozoa. However, Leydig cell number and the concentration of serum testosterone were equivalent between Irs2-deficient and control males. Testicular weight was reduced similarly in non-diabetic and diabetic Irs2 (-/-) mice, indicating that hyperglycemia does not compound the effects of Irs2 deletion on impaired testis development. Expression of Irs1, Irs3, and Irs4 was comparable between experimental groups. Collectively, our results demonstrate that IRS2 plays a critical role in testicular development, potentially by mediating IGF1 signalling during embryonic and early postnatal development.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e62103. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062103 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the genus Curculigo, Curculigo orchioides Gaertn, Curculigo capitulata (Lour) O. Ktze and Curculigo pilosa (Schumach. & Thonn.) Engl are often used in traditional medicine. C. orchioides is used for the treatment of impotence, limb limpness, arthritis of the lumbar and knee joints, and watery diarrhea in traditional Chinese medicine, and also used as a potent immunomodulator and aphrodisiac in the Ayurvedic medical system. C. capitulata is used for the treatment of consumptive cough, kidney asthenia, impotence and spermatorrhea, hemorrhoids, asthma, jaundice, diarrhea, colic and gonorrhea in traditional Chinese and India medicine, and to treat urinary tract infection, acute renal pelvis and nephritis, nephritis-edema, cystitis, nephrolithiasis, hypertension and rheumatic arthritis in traditional Dai medicine. C. pilosa are applied to treat gastrointestinal and heart diseases in Africa. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to exhibit up-to-date and comprehensive information about traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of medicinal plant in the genus Curculigo, and has an insight into the opportunities for the future research and development of Curculigo plant. METHODS: A bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing the information available on Curculigo plant from worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Yahoo). Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local and foreign books on ethnobotany and ethnomedicines. RESULTS: C. orchioides, C. capitulata and C. pilosa have been used as traditional medicine to treat kinds of diseases such as impotence, limb limpness, gastrointestinal and heart diseases, etc. Phytochemical investigation of 8 species of the genus Curculigo has resulted in identification of more than 110 compounds. The content of curculigoside is used as an indicator to evaluate the quality of rhizome of C. orchioides. The medicinal plant have showed a wide spectrum pharmacological activities, including adaptive, immunostimulatory, taste-modifying and sweet-tasting, antioxidant, mast cell stabilization, antihistaminic and antiasthmatic, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activity. Toxicological test indicated that C. orchioides at the dose of 120g/kg after administrating rats for 180 days may cause injury of liver and kidney. CONCLUSION: The medicinal plants of genus Curculigo have emerged as a good source of the traditional medicines. Some uses of these plants in the traditional medicines have been validated by pharmacological investigation. However, the mechanism of their actions should be further elucidated; the particular constituent responsible for toxicity should be isolated and identified, and the target tissue and mechanism of toxic ingredients also deserve to be further investigated; more reference substances should be prepared, and sophisticated analytical technologies should be developed to comprehensively assess the quality of Curculigo herbs. These investigations will be helpful for further utilization of the plants of genus Curculigo.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2013; 147(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.066 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Male infertility is one of the leading causes of social frustration and marginalization, mainly in the developing world. It is attributed to many factors including exposure to agropesticides such as manganese ethylenebis (dithiocarbamate) (maneb), which is one of the most frequently used fungicides in Cameroon. Previous reports support efficiency of some medicinal plants commonly used in Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of this disorder. Objective: The present study was aimed at assessing the protective effect of extracts from selected plant species, namely Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) (MEBa) and Carpolobia alba G. Don (Polygalaceae) (AECa), in alleviating the maneb-induced impairment of male reproductive function in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: The rats were treated with vehicle, plant extract (MEBa or AECa), maneb and maneb plus plant extract, respectively, and their fertility was assessed. Animals were thereafter sacrificed and organs (liver, kidneys and reproductive organs) were dissected out and weighed. Serum androgens together with alanine aminotransferase, liver glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) were also measured. Results and discussion: From this study, both plant extracts stimulated testosterone and improved fertility. Administration of MEBa plus maneb prevented fertility reduction by maneb and minimized the inhibitory effect of maneb on testosterone levels. AECa also improved fertility of the maneb-exposed rats, though without restoring testosterone levels, and other investigated parameters remained unaffected by different treatments. Conclusion: These findings emphasized the beneficial effects of B. alba and C. alba extracts on male fertility, and suggest their protective effect against maneb-induced toxicity in male reproductive function.
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