Structural and immunologic characterization of Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen.
ABSTRACT Allergic reactions to peanuts and tree nuts are major causes of anaphylaxis in the United States. We compare different properties of natural and recombinant versions of Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen, through structural, immunologic, and bioinformatics analyses. Small angle x-ray scattering studies show that natural Ara h 1 forms higher molecular weight aggregates in solution. In contrast, the full-length recombinant protein is partially unfolded and exists as a monomer. The crystal structure of the Ara h 1 core (residues 170-586) shows that the central part of the allergen has a bicupin fold, which is in agreement with our bioinformatics analysis. In its crystalline state, the core region of Ara h 1 forms trimeric assemblies, while in solution the protein exists as higher molecular weight assemblies. This finding reveals that the residues forming the core region of the protein are sufficient for formation of Ara h 1 trimers and higher order oligomers. Natural and recombinant variants of proteins tested in in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion assays show that the natural protein is the most stable form, followed by the recombinant Ara h 1 core fragment and the full-length recombinant protein. Additionally, IgE binding studies reveal that the natural and recombinant allergens have different patterns of interaction with IgE antibodies. The molecular basis of cross-reactivity between vicilin allergens is also elucidated.
- SourceAvailable from: Narayanaswamy Srinivasan[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The members of cupin superfamily exhibit large variations in their sequences, functions, organization of domains, quaternary associations and the nature of bound metal ion, despite having a conserved beta-barrel structural scaffold. Here, an attempt has been made to understand structure-function relationships among the members of this diverse superfamily and identify the principles governing functional diversity. The cupin superfamily also contains proteins for which the structures are available through world-wide structural genomics initiatives but characterized as "hypothetical". We have explored the feasibility of obtaining clues to functions of such proteins by means of comparative analysis with cupins of known structure and function. A 3-D structure-based phylogenetic approach was undertaken. Interestingly, a dendrogram generated solely on the basis of structural dissimilarity measure at the level of domain folds was found to cluster functionally similar members. This clustering also reflects an independent evolution of the two domains in bicupins. Close examination of structural superposition of members across various functional clusters reveals structural variations in regions that not only form the active site pocket but are also involved in interaction with another domain in the same polypeptide or in the oligomer. Structure-based phylogeny of cupins can influence identification of functions of proteins of yet unknown function with cupin fold. This approach can be extended to other proteins with a common fold that show high evolutionary divergence. This approach is expected to have an influence on the function annotation in structural genomics initiatives.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(5):e5736. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The developing science called structural genomics has focused to date mainly on high-throughput expression of individual proteins, followed by their purification and structure determination. In contrast, the term structural biology is used to denote the determination of structures, often complexes of several macromolecules, that illuminate aspects of biological function. Here we bridge structural genomics to structural biology with a procedure for determining protein complexes of previously unknown function from any organism with a sequenced genome. From computational genomic analysis, we identify functionally linked proteins and verify their interaction in vitro by coexpression/copurification. We illustrate this procedure by the structural determination of a previously unknown complex between a PE and PPE protein from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, members of protein families that constitute approximately 10% of the coding capacity of this genome. The predicted complex was readily expressed, purified, and crystallized, although we had previously failed in expressing individual PE and PPE proteins on their own. The reason for the failure is clear from the structure, which shows that the PE and PPE proteins mate along an extended apolar interface to form a four-alpha-helical bundle, where two of the alpha-helices are contributed by the PE protein and two by the PPE protein. Our entire procedure for the identification, characterization, and structural determination of protein complexes can be scaled to a genome-wide level.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2006; 103(21):8060-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ara h 1, a major peanut allergen was isolated, and its structure on secondary, tertiary, and quaternary level at ambient temperature was investigated using spectroscopic and biochemical techniques. Ara h 1 appeared to be a highly structured protein on a secondary level, possesses a clear tertiary fold, and is present as a trimeric complex. Heat treatment of purified Ara h 1 results in an endothermic, irreversible transition between 80 and 90 degreesC, leading to an increase in beta-structures and a concomitant aggregation of the protein. Ara h 1 from peanuts that were heat-treated prior to the purification procedure exhibited a similar denatured state with an increased secondary folding and a decreased solubility. The effect of heat treatment on the in vitro allergenic properties of Ara h 1 was investigated by means of a fluid-phase IgE binding assay using serum from patients with a clinically proven peanut allergy. Ara h 1 purified from peanuts heated at different temperatures exhibited IgE binding properties similar to those found for native Ara h 1, indicating that the allergenicity of Ara h 1 is heat-stable. We conclude that the allergenicity of Ara h 1 is unaffected by heating, although native Ara h 1 undergoes a significant heat-induced denaturation on a molecular level, indicating that the recognition of conformational epitopes of Ara h 1 by IgE either is not a dominant mechanism or is restricted to parts of the protein that are not sensitive to heat denaturation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1999; 274(8):4770-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor