Soluble CD163, a novel marker of activated macrophages, is elevated and associated with noncalcified coronary plaque in HIV-infected patients.

Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.78). 10/2011; 204(8):1227-36. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir520
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pro-inflammatory monocytes/macrophages may contribute to increased atherosclerosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We investigate--to our knowledge, for the first time--sCD163 and other markers of monocyte activation in relationship to atherosclerotic plaque in HIV-infected patients.
One hundred two HIV-infected and 41 HIV-seronegative men with equivalent cardiovascular risk factors and without history of coronary artery disease were prospectively recruited and underwent computed tomography coronary angiography.
sCD163 levels and presence of plaque were significantly higher among antiretroviral-treated subjects with undetectable HIV RNA levels, compared with seronegative controls (1172 ± 646 vs. 883 ± 561 ng/mL [P = .02] for sCD163 and 61% vs. 39% [P = .03] for presence of plaque). After adjusting for age, race, lipids, blood pressure, glucose, smoking, sCD14, and HIV infection, sCD163 remained independently associated with noncalcified plaque (P = .008). Among HIV-infected patients, sCD163 was associated with coronary segments with noncalcified plaque (r = 0.21; P = .04), but not with calcium score. In contrast, markers of generalized inflammation, including C-reactive protein level, and D-dimer were not associated with sCD163 or plaque among HIV-infected patients.
sCD163, a monocyte/macrophage activation marker, is increased in association with noncalcified coronary plaque in men with chronic HIV infection and low or undetectable viremia. These data suggest a potentially important role of chronic monocyte/macrophage activation in the development of noncalcified vulnerable plaque.


Available from: Tricia H Burdo, Apr 19, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and improve levels of CVD biomarkers produced outside the liver (nonhepatic biomarkers). Stored serum or plasma from before and 24 weeks after end of HCV treatment (EOT) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected subjects who received up to 72 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin, 27 with and 27 without sustained virologic response (SVR) matched by race, ethnicity and sex, were tested for nonhepatic (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], soluble P-selectin [sP-selectin], interleukin [IL]-6, d-dimer, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [Lp-PLA2]) and hepatic (cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) CVD and macrophage activation markers (soluble CD163 [sCD163] and soluble CD14). Changes in biomarkers and their association with SVR were examined by t tests or Wilcoxon tests and regression models. Of the 54 subjects, 30 were white, 24 were black, and 44 were male. Pretreatment levels of nonhepatic biomarkers were high: sICAM-1 overall median, 439.2 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 365.6-592.8]; sP-selectin, 146.7 ng/mL (IQR, 94.1-209.9), and IL-6, 2.32 pg/mL (IQR, 1.61-3.49). Thirty-seven of 52 (71%) subjects had Lp-PLA2 >235 ng/mL. Sustained virologic response was associated with decrease in sICAM-1 (P = .033) and sCD163 (P = .042); this result was attenuated after controlling for changes in the alanine aminotransferase level. At 24 weeks after EOT, 17 (63%) SVRs had Lp-PLA2 >235 ng/mL vs 25 (93%) non-SVRs (P = .021). Hepatitis C virus clearance may reduce hepatic and, subsequently, systemic inflammation and CVD risk in HIV/HCV coinfection.
    12/2014; 1(3):ofu104. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu104
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection.
    Vascular Health and Risk Management 01/2015; 11:35-48. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S65885
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages may be inhibited by HIV and contribute to increased CVD. Human studies have not investigated longitudinal effects of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on cholesterol efflux. Subjects with acute HIV infection were randomized to ART or not. Cholesterol efflux capacity was determined ex vivo after exposure of murine macrophages to apolipoprotein B-depleted patient sera obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, HIV RNA decreased most in subjects randomized to ART. Available data on cholesterol demonstrated that efflux capacity from Abca1(+/+) macrophages was increased most by sera obtained from ART-treated subjects (20.5% ± 5.0% to 24.3 % ± 6.9%, baseline to 12 weeks, P = .007; ART group [n = 6] vs 18.0 % ± 3.9% to 19.1 % ± 2.9%, baseline to 12 weeks, P = .30; untreated group [n = 6] [P = .04 ART vs untreated group]). Change in HIV RNA was negatively associated with change in Abca1(+/+) macrophage cholesterol efflux (r = - 0.62, P = .03), and this finding remained significant (P = .03) after controlling for changes in HDL-cholesterol, CD4(+) cells, and markers of monocyte or macrophage activation. In subjects acutely infected with HIV, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux was stimulated to a greater degree over time by apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from subjects randomized to ART. The improvement in cholesterol efflux capacity is independently related to reduction in viral load.
    12/2014; 1(3):ofu108. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu108

Similar Publications