Single-nucleotide base excision repair DNA polymerase activity in C. elegans in the absence of DNA polymerase

Laboratory of Structural Biology, NIEHS, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Nucleic Acids Research (Impact Factor: 9.11). 09/2011; 40(2):670-81. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkr727
Source: PubMed


The base excision DNA repair (BER) pathway known to occur in Caenorhabditis elegans has not been well characterized. Even less is known about the DNA polymerase (pol) requirement for the gap-filling step during BER. We now report on characterization of in vitro uracil-DNA initiated BER in C. elegans. The results revealed single-nucleotide (SN) gap-filling DNA polymerase activity and complete BER. The gap-filling polymerase activity was not due to a DNA polymerase β (pol β) homolog, or to another X-family polymerase, since computer-based sequence analyses of the C. elegans genome failed to show a match for a pol β-like gene or other X-family polymerases. Activity gel analysis confirmed the absence of pol β in the C. elegans extract. BER gap-filling polymerase activity was partially inhibited by both dideoxynucleotide and aphidicolin. The results are consistent with a combination of both replicative polymerase(s) and lesion bypass/BER polymerase pol θ contributing to the BER gap-filling synthesis. Involvement of pol θ was confirmed in experiments with extract from pol θ null animals. The presence of the SN BER in C. elegans is supported by these results, despite the absence of a pol β-like enzyme or other X-family polymerase.

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Available from: Elena K Braithwaite, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "The final repair intermediate containing a nick is sealed by either DNA Ligase (Lig) I or III (22–24). The multiple steps after strand incision and margin trimming have been termed ‘late stage’ BER (12,25,26). "
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    ABSTRACT: During mammalian base excision repair (BER) of lesion-containing DNA, it is proposed that toxic strand-break intermediates generated throughout the pathway are sequestered and passed from one step to the next until repair is complete. This stepwise process is termed substrate channeling. A working model evaluated here is that a complex of BER factors may facilitate the BER process. FLAG-tagged DNA polymerase (pol) β was expressed in mouse fibroblasts carrying a deletion in the endogenous pol β gene, and the cell extract was subjected to an 'affinity-capture' procedure using anti-FLAG antibody. The pol β affinity-capture fraction (ACF) was found to contain several BER factors including polymerase-1, X-ray cross-complementing factor1-DNA ligase III and enzymes involved in processing 3'-blocked ends of BER intermediates, e.g. polynucleotide kinase and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1. In contrast, DNA glycosylases, apurinic/aprymidinic endonuclease 1 and flap endonuclease 1 and several other factors involved in BER were not present. Some of the BER factors in the pol β ACF were in a multi-protein complex as observed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The pol β ACF was capable of substrate channeling for steps in vitro BER and was proficient in in vitro repair of substrates mimicking a 3'-blocked topoisomerase I covalent intermediate or an oxidative stress-induced 3'-blocked intermediate.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2012; 40(22). DOI:10.1093/nar/gks898 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current model for base excision repair (BER) involves two general sub-pathways termed single-nucleotide BER and long patch BER that are distinguished by their repair patch sizes and the enzymes/co-factors involved. Both sub-pathways involve a series of sequential steps from initiation to completion of repair. The BER sub-pathways are designed to sequester the various intermediates, passing them along from one step to the next without allowing these toxic molecules to trigger cell cycle arrest, necrotic cell death, or apoptosis. Although a variety of DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions are known for the BER intermediates and enzymes/co-factors, the molecular mechanisms accounting for step-to-step coordination are not well understood. In the present study we designed an in vitro assay to explore the question of whether there is a channeling or "hand-off" of the repair intermediates during BER in vitro. The results show that when BER enzymes are pre-bound to the initial single-nucleotide BER intermediate, the DNA is channeled from apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 to DNA polymerase β and then to DNA ligase. In the long patch BER subpathway, where the 5'-end of the incised strand is blocked, the intermediate after DNA polymerase β gap filling is not channeled to the subsequent enzyme, flap endonuclease 1. Instead, flap endonuclease 1 must recognize and bind to the intermediate in competition with other molecules.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(52):40479-88. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.155267 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Base excision repair (BER) is an evolutionarily conserved DNA repair pathway that is critical for repair of many of the most common types of DNA damage generated both by endogenous metabolic pathways and exposure to exogenous stressors such as pollutants. Caenorhabditis elegans is an increasingly important model organism for the study of DNA damage-related processes including DNA repair, genotoxicity, and apoptosis, but BER is not well understood in this organism, and has not previously been measured in vivo. We report robust BER in the nuclear genome and slightly slower damage removal from the mitochondrial genome; in both cases the removal rates are comparable to those observed in mammals. However we could detect no deficiency in BER in the nth-1 strain, which carries a deletion in the only glycosylase yet described in C. elegans that repairs oxidative DNA damage. We also failed to detect increased lethality or growth inhibition in nth-1 nematodes after exposure to oxidative or alkylating damage, suggesting the existence of at least one additional as-yet undetected glycosylase.
    DNA repair 09/2012; 11(11). DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2012.08.002 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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