Risk factors and microbial isolates of puerperal sepsis at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, North-eastern Nigeria
ABSTRACT To determine the risk factors and microbial isolates of puerperal sepsis.
A 12 year retrospective review of patients with puerperal sepsis from January 1999 to December 2010 at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) was conducted. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, place and mode of delivery and microorganism isolated from the endocervical swabs was collected and analysed. Comparison was also made with the other women that delivered during the period of study.
The incidence of puerperal sepsis was 0.78%. Majority (88.0%) of the patients were unbooked, 59.1% delivered at home and 23.1% delivered in other peripheral hospitals. The major risk factors for developing puerperal sepsis were unbooked status, home delivery, perineal trauma, caesarean section (C/S) and maternal age <24 years with OR of 56.60, 39.25, 8.52, 4.99 and 1.32, respectively. The commonest microorganism isolated were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli seen in 35.4 and 20.9%, respectively. Streptococcus species was found in 6.9%, while 20.3% had polymicrobials isolated.
Puerperal sepsis continues to present a significant risk of maternal mortality in developing countries. The risk factors are unbooked women, home delivery, perineal trauma, caesarean section and maternal age <24 years. S. aureus and E. coli are the commonest isolated organisms. There is a need to enlighten the populace on the need for booking, skilled attendant at delivery and hospital delivery under aseptic conditions.
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ABSTRACT: The urinary tract is a common site of infection in humans. During pregnancy, urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, even when the infection is asymptomatic. By mapping available rates of UTI in pregnancy across different populations, we emphasize this as a problem of global significance. Many countries with high rates of preterm birth and neonatal mortality also have rates of UTI in pregnancy that exceed rates seen in more developed countries. A global analysis of the etiologies of UTI revealed familiar culprits as well as emerging threats. Screening and treatment of UTI have improved birth outcomes in several more developed countries and would likely improve maternal and neonatal health worldwide. However, challenges of implementation in resource-poor settings must be overcome. We review the nature of the barriers occurring at each step of the screening and treatment pipeline and highlight steps necessary to overcome these obstacles. It is our hope that the information compiled here will increase awareness of the global significance of UTI in maternal and neonatal health and embolden governments, nongovernmental organizations, and researchers to do their part to make urine screening and UTI treatment a reality for all pregnant women.09/2013; 2(5):59-69. DOI:10.7453/gahmj.2013.061
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ABSTRACT: Puerperal infection is a common complication during postnatal period in developing countries. Bacterial species, drug resistance, and genetic characteristics were investigated for a total of 470 isolates from puerperal infections in Bangladesh for a 2-year period (2010-2012). The most common species was Escherichia coli (n=98), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (n=54), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=33), Proteus mirabilis (n=32), Staphylococcus aureus (n=27), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=22), and Enterobacter cloacae (n=21). S. aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated at a higher frequency from wound infections after cesarean section, while E. coli, E. cloacae, and K. pneumoniae were isolated from community-acquired endometritis and urinary tract infections. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins was frequent for Enterobacteriacae, and was mainly mediated by blaCTX-M-1 group beta-lactamases. The CTX-M gene in E. coli from the four phylogroups was identified as blaCTX-M-15, and phylogroup B2 isolates with blaCTX-M-15 were classified into ST131 with O25b allele, harboring aac(6')-Ib-cr and various virulence factors. Carbapenemase genes blaNDM-1 and blaNDM-7 were identified in one isolate each of phylogroup A E. coli. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates had type IV or V SCCmec, including isolates of ST361 (CC672), which is related to an emerging ST672 clone in the Indian subcontinent. This study revealed the recent epidemiological status of aerobic bacteria causing puerperal infections in Bangladesh, providing useful information to improve clinical practice and infection control.Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) 01/2015; 21(3). DOI:10.1089/mdr.2014.0219 · 2.52 Impact Factor