Migration of natural estrogens around a concentrated dairy-feeding operation.
ABSTRACT Concentrated animal feeding operations have been recognized as one of the most important contributors of natural estrogens which show significant endocrine-disrupting properties in aquatic environments. In this study, the concentrations of 17α-estradiol (17α-E2), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3) in several matrices, including soils (surface and deep), sediments (surface and deep), and groundwaters, around a typical dairy farm were surveyed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of the two farmlands, surface and subsurface sediments in waste lagoon and along effluent drainage drench, the concentrations of 17α-E2, 17β-E2, and E1 ranged from below detection limit to the highest level of 6.60 μg/kg, except that E3 was not detectable. Three estrogens of 17α-E2, 17β-E2, and E1 with the concentrations of 3.18-31.61 ng/L were observed in two groundwater samples. The results clearly demonstrated the vertical migration and horizontal transport of estrogens in the investigated area. Within 750-m distance, it was observed the attenuation of 17α-E2, 17β-E2, and E1 along the effluent route and the horizontal migration of estrogens was less than 1,350 m in this survey.
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ABSTRACT: 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), a major constituent of common contraceptive pills, and three other estrogenic hormones, estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and mestranol (MeEE2) have been determined in Acushnet River Estuary seawater using a GC-MS technique. Among three estrogenic compounds detected, EE2 has the highest concentration, up to 4.7 ng/l, at which EE2 may affect lobster and other fish abundance in the coastal seawater due to its high biological activity on fish feminization. Two natural estrogenic hormones, E1 and E2 have also been found in the estuary at concentrations up to 1.2 ng/l and 0.83 ng/l, respectively. Although EE2 is persistent to microbial degradation, it can undergo a rapid photodegradation in estuarine seawater under natural sunlight irradiation, with a half-life of less than 1.5 days in spring sunny days.Chemosphere 07/2006; 63(9):1583-90. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current state of knowledge regarding the environmental impact of growth-promoting compounds associated with the U.S. beef cattle industry is extensive in some areas but virtually nonexistent in others. The compounds administered to the cattle are quite well understood, as are bovine metabolism and excretion. If the sex and age of the cattle on the feedlot are known, the metabolites excreted by the cattle should be predictable with a great deal of accuracy. The fate, transport, and biological effects of growth-promoting compounds are just beginning to be studied. Most of the research conducted on the fate and transport of growth-promoting compounds has focused on 17beta-E2; however, much of this research was not conducted using feedlot runoff or manure. Studies are needed that focus specifically on manures and runoff from experimental or commercial feedlots. To date, the degree to which growth-promoting compounds are released from feedlots in a bioavailable form remains a point of speculation. The environmental fate and transport of TBA, P, and MGA have not been well studied. Comparisons between the fate and transport of T and 17beta-E2, however, make it clear that compounds with similar structure may behave very differently once released into the environment. Considering that 17beta-E2 is a naturally occurring estrogen and that TBA is a nonaromatizable androgen, it is not surprising that these compounds directly impact the reproductive physiology of fishes. The effects of these two compounds have been well documented, as has been described here; however, the effects of P and MGA exposures have gone largely uninvestigated. This is a serious critical gap in our knowledge base because progestogins play an important role in sex steroid synthesis and reproduction. Clearly, additional research on the consequences of exposures to P and MGA is warranted. The majority of research investigating the effects of 17beta-E2 and TBA metabolites on fish has been conducted in the laboratory and has typically focused on continuous, pharmacological exposures to single compounds. These exposures may not bear much similarity to environmentally relevant exposures, and as such may offer little information regarding biological effects seen in nature. Cattle feedlot runoff is likely to contain a suite of growth-promoting compounds rather than any single compound. Clearly, deciphering the biological effects of exposure to complex mixtures containing androgenic, estrogenic, and progestogenic compounds will remain an important area of study for the next few years. A second complexity associated with the biological runoff from cattle feedlots is the discontinuous nature of the release. It is likely that inadvertent entry of growth-promoting compounds will follow spring snowmelt or rainstorm events. These events will result in intermittent, pulsed exposures to high concentrations of these compounds interspersed by long-term exposures to lower concentrations. The effects of exposure timing and duration should be considered to generate a clearer understanding of the biological consequences of exposures to growth-promoting compounds. To date, a very limited number of studies (only one!) have sought to determine whether fish living in waterways receiving runoff from cattle feedlots are adversely affected by growth-promoting compounds associated with the runoff. Clearly, more field studies need to be conducted before a relationship between cattle feedlot effluent and biological consequences can be elucidated.Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology 02/2008; 195:1-30. · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estrogenic hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which disrupt the endocrine system function of animals and humans by mimicking and/or antagonizing endogenous hormones. With the application of sludge biosolid and animal manure as alternative fertilizers in agricultural lands, estrogens enter the soil and become an environmental concern. The degradation kinetics of 17beta-estradiol, an estrogenic hormone of major concern, in a silt loam soil were investigated in this study. It was found that 17beta-estradiol degraded rapidly in nonsterilized soil with a half-life of 0.17 day. The degradation rate constant was proportional to the percentage of nonsterilized soil, indicating that microorganisms are directly responsible for the rapid degradation of 17beta-estradiol in soil. The half-life of 17beta-estradiol in 20% nonsterilized soil was slightly shortened from 1.3 to 0.69 day with the increase of soil moisture from 10 to 20% and was greatly decreased from 4.9 to 0.92 day with the increase of temperature from 15 to 25 degrees C. The coexistence of 40 micromol kg (-1) sulfadimethoxine, a veterinary antibiotic, decreased the degradation rate constant of 17beta-estradiol from 0.750 +/- 0.038 to 0.492 +/- 0.016 day (-1). The degradation kinetics of another three estrogenic hormones, including 17alpha-estradiol, estrone, and estriol, were also investigated and compared. Estrone was identified as a degradation product of 17beta-estradiol and the most persistent hormone among the four investigated estrogens. Estriol was observed in the degradation of estrone and 17alpha-estradiol.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2008; 56(19):9152-8. · 2.91 Impact Factor