Elevated Depressive Symptoms, Antidepressant Use, and Diabetes in a Large Multiethnic National Sample of Postmenopausal Women

Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.
Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.42). 09/2011; 34(11):2390-2. DOI: 10.2337/dc11-1223
Source: PubMed


To examine elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use in relation to diabetes incidence in the Women's Health Initiative.
A total of 161,808 postmenopausal women were followed for over an average of 7.6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) estimating the effects of elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use on newly diagnosed incident diabetes were obtained using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for known diabetes risk factors.
Multivariable-adjusted HRs indicated an increased risk of incident diabetes with elevated baseline depressive symptoms (HR 1.13 [95% CI 1.07-1.20]) and antidepressant use (1.18 [1.10-1.28]). These associations persisted through year 3 data, in which respective adjusted HRs were 1.23 (1.09-1.39) and 1.31 (1.14-1.50).
Postmenopausal women with elevated depressive symptoms who also use antidepressants have a greater risk of developing incident diabetes. In addition, longstanding elevated depressive symptoms and recent antidepressant medication use increase the risk of incident diabetes.

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    • "The Women’s Health Initiative dataset was used to study the effect of elevated depressive symptoms and antidepressant use on the risk of diabetes in 161,808 postmenopausal women followed up for an average of 7.6 years (25). The women were studied annually, and incident diabetes was determined by self-report in the 152,250 women who did not have diabetes at baseline. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Antidepressant use has risen sharply over recent years. Recent concerns that antidepressants may adversely affect glucose metabolism require investigation. Our aim was to assess the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with antidepressants through a systematic review.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data sources were MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, meeting abstracts of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, American Diabetes Association, and Diabetes UK, Current Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, U.K. Clinical Research Network, scrutiny of bibliographies of retrieved articles, and contact with relevant experts. Relevant studies of antidepressant effects were included. Key outcomes were diabetes incidence and change in blood glucose (fasting and random).RESULTSThree systemic reviews and 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Research designs included 1 case series and 21 observational studies comprising 4 cross-sectional, 5 case-control, and 12 cohort studies. There was evidence that antidepressant use is associated with type 2 diabetes. Causality is not established, but rather, the picture is confused, with some antidepressants linked to worsening glucose control, particularly with higher doses and longer duration, others linked with improved control, and yet more with mixed results. The more recent, larger studies, however, suggest a modest effect. Study quality was variable.CONCLUSIONS Although evidence exists that antidepressant use may be an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes, long-term prospective studies of the effects of individual antidepressants rather than class effects are required. Heightened alertness to potential risks is necessary until these are complete.
    Diabetes care 10/2013; 36(10):3337-45. DOI:10.2337/dc13-0560 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    • "In a subgroup analysis of studies controlling specific risk factors, the associations between antidepressant use and risk of DM were consistent with the overall results. However, a pooled estimate of studies controlling physical activity7,10,14,33,37) (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.27) was attenuated comparing the overall result in the random effect model. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between the use of antidepressants and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk. We performed a meta-analysis to systematically assess the association between antidepressants and type 2 DM risk. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (through Dec 31, 2011), including references of qualifying articles. Studies concerning the use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), or other antidepressants and the associated risk of diabetes mellitus were included. Out of 2,934 screened articles, 3 case-control studies, 9 cohort studies, and no clinical trials were included in the final analyses. When all studies were pooled, use of antidepressants was significantly associated with an increased risk of DM in a random effect model (relative risk [RR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 1.71). In subgroup analyses, the risk of DM increased among both SSRI users (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.58) and TCA users (RR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.96). The subgroup analyses were consistent with overall results regardless of study type, information source, country, duration of medication, or study quality. The subgroup results considering body weight, depression severity, and physical activity also showed a positive association (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.28). A publication bias was observed in the selected studies (Egger's test, P for bias = 0.09). Our results suggest that the use of antidepressants is associated with an increased risk of DM.
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine 07/2013; 34(4):228-40. DOI:10.4082/kjfm.2013.34.4.228
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Depression and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are frequently comorbid conditions. It is of considerable clinical significance to avoid metabolic risks in nondiabetic depressed patients and to consider effects on glucose regulation in depressed DM2 patients. This review is an overview on antidepressant treatment and its potential metabolic risks. Recent findings: It is increasingly recognized that effective treatment with antidepressants improves glucose homeostasis in nondiabetic depressed patients in the short run, whereas long-term effects are a matter of debate. Cognitive behavioral and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment may improve glycemic control in depressed DM2 patients, whereas noradrenergic antidepressants and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may cause the metabolic situation to deteriorate. Summary: SSRIs are preferable in nondiabetic depressed patients since they improve glucose regulation in the short run and may have little untoward effects in the long run. In depressed DM2 patients, SSRIs are the only class of antidepressants with confirmed favorable effects on glycemic control.
    Current opinion in psychiatry 11/2012; 26(1). DOI:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32835a4206 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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