Safety and Efficacy of the PrePex Device for Rapid Scale-Up of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Resource-Limited Settings

Kanombe Military Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.39). 09/2011; 58(5):e127-34. DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182354e65
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the safety and efficacy of the PrePex device for nonsurgical circumcision in adult males as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention program in Rwanda.
Single-center 6-week noncontrolled study in which healthy men underwent circumcision using the PrePex device, which employs fitted rings to clamp the foreskin, leading to distal necrosis. In the first phase of the study, the feasibility of the procedure was tested on 5 subjects in a sterile environment; in the main phase, an additional 50 subjects were circumcised in a nonsterile setting by physicians or a nurse. Outcome measures included the rate of successful circumcision, time to complete healing, pain, and adverse events.
In the feasibility phase, all 5 subjects achieved complete circumcision without adverse events. In the main phase, all 50 subjects achieved circumcision with 1 case of diffuse edema after device removal, which resolved with minimal intervention. Pain was minimal except briefly during device removal (day 7 after placement in most cases). The entire procedure was bloodless, requiring no anesthesia, no suturing, and no sterile settings. Subjects had no sick/absent days associated with the procedure. Median time for complete healing was 21 days after device removal. There were no instances of erroneous placement and no mechanical problems with the device.
The PrePex device was safe and effective for nonsurgical adult male circumcision without anesthesia or sterile settings and may be useful in mass circumcision programs to reduce the risk of HIV infection, particularly in resource-limited settings.

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    ABSTRACT: ObjectivesTo assess the safety and acceptance of the PrePex device for medical male circumcision (MMC) in rural Uganda.MethodsIn an observational study, HIV-uninfected, uncircumcised men aged 18 and older who requested elective MMC were informed about the PrePex and dorsal slit methods and offered a free choice of their preferred procedure. 100 men received PrePex to assess preliminary safety (aim 1). An additional 329 men, 250 chose PrePex and 79 chose Dorsal slit, were enrolled following approval by the Safety Monitoring Committee (aim 2). Men were followed up at 7 days to assess adverse events (AEs) and to remove the PrePex device. Wound healing was assessed at 4 weeks, with subsequent weekly follow up until completed healing.ResultsThe PrePex device was contraindicated in 5.7% of men due to a tight prepuce or phimosis/adhesions. Among 429 enrolled men 350 (82.0%) got the PrePex device and 79 (18.0%) the dorsal slit procedure. 250 of 329 men (76.0%) who were invited to choose between the 2 procedures chose Prepex. There were 9 AEs (2.6%) with the PrePex, of which 5 (1.4%) were severe complications, 4 due to patient self-removal of the device leading to edema and urinary obstruction requiring emergency surgical circumcision, and one due to wound dehiscence following device removal. 71.8% of men reported an unpleasant odor prior to PrePex removal. Cumulative rates of completed wound healing with the PrePex were 56.7% at week 4, 84.8% week 5, 97.6% week 6 and 98.6% week 7, compared to 98.7% at week 4 with dorsal slit (p<0.0001).ConclusionThe PrePex device was well accepted, but healing was slower than with dorsal slit surgery. Severe complications, primarily following PrePex self-removal, required rapid access to emergency surgical facilities. The need to return for removal and delayed healing may increase Program cost and client burden.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e100008. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100008 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • 05/2014; 104(5):324. DOI:10.7196/samj.7993
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    ABSTRACT: Fourteen African countries are scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention. Several devices that might offer alternatives to the three WHO-approved surgical VMMC procedures have been evaluated for use in adults. One such device is PrePex, which was prequalified by the WHO in May 2013. We utilized data from one of the PrePex field studies undertaken in Zimbabwe to identify cost considerations for introducing PrePex into the existing surgical circumcision program. We evaluated the cost drivers and overall unit cost of VMMC at a site providing surgical VMMC as a routine service ("routine surgery site") and at a site that had added PrePex VMMC procedures to routine surgical VMMC as part of a research study ("mixed study site"). We examined the main cost drivers and modeled hypothetical scenarios with varying ratios of surgical to PrePex circumcisions, different levels of site utilization, and a range of device prices. The unit costs per VMMC for the routine surgery and mixed study sites were $56 and $61, respectively. The two greatest contributors to unit price at both sites were consumables and staff. In the hypothetical scenarios, the unit cost increased as site utilization decreased, as the ratio of PrePex to surgical VMMC increased, and as device price increased. VMMC unit costs for routine surgery and mixed study sites were similar. Low service utilization was projected to result in the greatest increases in unit price. Countries that wish to incorporate PrePex into their circumcision programs should plan to maximize staff utilization and ensure that sites function at maximum capacity to achieve the lowest unit cost. Further costing studies will be necessary once routine implementation of PrePex-based circumcision is established.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e82533. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082533 · 3.53 Impact Factor