To evaluate whether older injured motor vehicular crash (MVC) occupants' access to trauma centers (TC) reflects the lower threshold suggested in triaging recommendations.
Adult front seat occupants of MVCs transported to a hospital from 1999 through 2006 included in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) were studied. Cases were classified by their age in years (≤60 years or >60 years). Younger and older injured MVC occupants were compared in relation to their likelihood of being transported to a TC. Multiple logistic regression models were built to adjust for confounders.
A total of 35,830 cases representing 7,894,940 cases after weighting were analyzed. Older occupants were less likely to be transported to a TC than younger ones (47% vs. 55%, p < 0.0001). Older individuals were more likely to be restrained, passengers, and seated on the impacted side of lateral crashes. Injury severity was higher among the older group (mean Injury Severity Score, 4.1 vs. 3.1; p < 0.0001) and so was the resulting mortality (1.7% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression models after adjusting for confounders (i.e., other triage criteria) revealed a lower likelihood of TC transport (odds ratio, 0.75 [0.57-0.98]) for the older group.
In contrast to the American College of Surgeons triaging recommendations, injured MVC occupants older than 60 years are less likely to be transported to a TC than their younger counterparts. Further studies should establish whether the lower access to TC experienced by the older population is a function of geographical factors, emergency medical services unconscious bias, or other factors.
"Occupant age was categorized as less than 55or 55+ years. This age cut off was based on the " Field triage decision protocol " age criterion (Sasser et al, 2009), based on the findings that those 55+ years are more likely to 1) sustain severe injuries given a similar injury mechanism, 2) require a higher intensity of care, and 3) have worse outcomes given similar injuries (Ryb et al, 2011). BMI was categorized according to the standards given by the "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : The purpose of this study is to establish whether motor vehicular crash (MVC) case fatality varies across different urbanization levels in the USA using a representative sample of crashes.
: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between urbanization level [i.e., central city (CC), suburban (SU) and others (OT)] and mortality were estimated in the 1997 - 2010 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Analysis was repeated for the occurrence of pre-hospital and hospital deaths.
: 49,040,520 weighted occupants were included in the study. The distribution of occupants by urbanization categories was: SU 45%, OT 42%, and CC 13%. Case fatality was higher among OT occupants (0.81%) than among SU (0.51%) and CC (0.37%) occupants. Similar findings were present for pre-hospital deaths (OT 0.52%, SU 0.30%, and CC 0.21%) and hospital deaths (OT 0.29%, SU 0.21%, and CC 0.16%). Multivariate analysis revealed that adjusted odds of death were higher for OT cases [OR=1.55 (1.05-2.30)] than the CC. Adjusted odds of death for SU (OR=1.05 (0.81-1.37) were not different than CCs. Similar but accentuated findings were found for pre-hospital deaths. In contrast, adjusted odds of hospital death were not different among the 3 groups.
: Occupants of vehicles crashing in OT (i.e., rural areas and small cities) experience a higher likelihood of dying after MVCs than those in CC and SU. Pre-hospital deaths, not hospital deaths, are responsible for this disparity.
Annals of advances in automotive medicine 01/2012; 56:183-90.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injured geriatric patients pose unique challenges to the trauma team because of their abnormal responses to shock and injury. We have developed the high-risk geriatric protocol (GP) that seeks to identify high-risk geriatric patients. We hypothesized that a high-risk GP would improve outcome in this select group of patients.
Patients from 2000 to 2010 were included. Patients 65 years or older who met high-risk GP based on comorbidities and/or physiologic parameters were compared with those patients who had not received GP before its implementation as well as other non-GP patients. This protocol includes a geriatric consultation, as well as a lactate levels, arterial blood gas levels, and echo test to assess for occult shock. Age, trauma activation, preexisting conditions, Injury Severity Score, Revised Trauma Score, and mortality were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors predictive of mortality.
A total of 3,902 patients were evaluated. Patients receiving GP were less likely to die (odds ratio, 0.63 [0.39-0.99], p = 0.046). For all patients, there was a dramatic increase in mortality for those patients older than 75 years.
The GP, adjusted for other covariates, significantly reduced mortality in our patient population. Thus, this study confirms the overall effectiveness of our GP, which is hallmarked by prompt identification of those patients with occult shock and a multidisciplinary care of the aged population.
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