Cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination of older adults in the ED setting
ABSTRACT Adults older than 50 years are at greater risk for death and severe disability from influenza. Persons in this age group, however, are frequently not vaccinated, despite extensive efforts by physicians to provide this preventive measure in primary care settings. We performed this study to determine if influenza vaccination of older adults in the emergency department (ED) may be cost-effective.
Using a probabilistic decision model with quasi-Markov modeling of a typical influenza season, we calculated costs and health outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of patients using parameters from the literature. Three ED-based intervention strategies were compared: (1) no vaccination offered, (2) vaccination offered to patients older than 65 years (limited strategy), and (3) vaccination offered to all patients who are 50 years and older (inclusive strategy). Outcomes were measured as costs, lives saved, and incremental costs per life saved. We performed deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.
Vaccination of patients 50 years of age and older results in an incremental cost of $34,610 per life saved when compared with the no-vaccination strategy. Limiting vaccination to only those older than 65 years results in an incremental cost of $13,084 per life saved. Results were sensitive to changes in vaccine cost but were insensitive to changes in other model parameters.
Vaccination of older adults against influenza in the ED setting is cost-effective, especially for those older than 65 years. Emergency departments may be an important setting for providing influenza vaccination to adults who may otherwise have remained unvaccinated.
- Annals of emergency medicine 07/2013; 63(5). DOI:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2013.06.021 · 4.33 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study estimates the causal impact of variation in the expenditures of California county departments of public health on all-cause mortality rates and the associated value of lives saved. Since the activities of county departments of public health are likely to affect mortality rates with a lag, Koyck distributed lag models are estimated using the Lewbel instrumental variables estimator. The findings show that an additional $10 per capita of public health expenditures reduces all-cause mortality by 9.1 deaths per 100,000. At current funding levels, the long-run annual number of lives saved by the presence of county departments of public health in California is estimated to be approximately 27,000 (26,937 lives, 95% confidence interval: [11,963, 41,911]). The annual value of these lives is estimated to be worth $212.8 billion using inflation-adjusted standard U.S. government estimates of the value of a statistical life ($7.9 million).Economics and human biology 10/2013; 13(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ehb.2013.10.001 · 2.46 Impact Factor