Article

Reopening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels reduces neuropathic pain and regulates astroglial gap junctions in the rat spinal cord

Department of Neurobiology, Parker University Research Institute, Dallas, TX 75229, USA.
Pain (Impact Factor: 5.84). 09/2011; 152(11):2605-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are suggested to be involved in pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, but remain underinvestigated in primary afferents and in the spinal cord. We examined alterations of K(ATP) channels in rat spinal cord and tested whether and how they could contribute to neuropathic pain. The results showed that protein expression for K(ATP) channel subunits SUR1, SUR2, and Kir6.1, but not Kir6.2, were significantly downregulated and associated with thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia after sciatic nerve injury. Spinal administration of a K(ATP) channel opener cromakalim (CRO, 5, 10, and 20 μg, respectively) prevented or suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, the hyperalgesia and allodynia. Nerve injury also significantly increased expression and phosphorylation of connexin 43, an astroglial gap junction protein. Such an increase of phosphorylation of connexin 43 was inhibited by CRO treatment. Furthermore, preadministration of an astroglial gap junction decoupler carbenoxolone (10 μg) completely reversed the inhibitory effects of CRO treatment on the hyperalgesia and allodynia and phosphorylation of NR1 and NR2B receptors and the subsequent activation of Ca(2+)-dependent signals Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein. These findings suggest that nerve injury-induced downregulation of the K(ATP) channels in the spinal cord may interrupt the astroglial gap junctional function and contribute to neuropathic pain, thus the K(ATP) channels opener can reduce neuropathic pain probably partly via regulating the astroglial gap junctions. This study may provide a new strategy for treating neuropathic pain using K(ATP) channel openers in the clinic.

0 Followers
 · 
244 Views
  • Source
    Dataset: paper
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels have been proven to be involved in regulating postoperative pain, the underlying mechanism remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of spinal KATP channels in the control of mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat pain model, in which rats were subjected to skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) surgery, as well as in LPS-stimulated astrocytes. The results showed that KATP channel subunits Kir6.1, SUR1 and SUR2 were normally expressed in the spinal cord and significantly downregulated after SMIR. SMIR caused a marked increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA expression and in the protein level of p-JNK in the spinal cord. Intrathecal administration of a KATP channel opener pinacidil (Pina) suppressed mechanical allodynia after SMIR and significantly downregulated the MCP-1 mRNA expression and the protein level of p-JNK induced by SMIR. Inverted fluorescence microscopy showed that Kir6.1 was co-localized with astrocytes only and SUR2 was co-localized primarily with neurons, in a small amount with astrocytes. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that following incubation with LPS, the astrocytic MCP-1 mRNA expression and p-JNK content were markedly increased, whereas the mRNA levels of Kir6.1 and SUR2 were significantly downregulated in astrocytes. KATP channel opener pinacidil inhibited the LPS-triggered MCP-1 and p-JNK elevation in rat primary astrocytes. The results suggested that KATP channel opener treatment is an effective therapy for postoperative pain in animals, through the activation of the JNK/MCP-1 pathway in astrocytes.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2015.2143 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pregabalin (PGB) displays analgesic and anticonvulsant activities. Regulation of the resting membrane potential (RMP) by renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK1) channels may provide a mechanism for these activities. We examined the effects of PGB on ROMK1 channel activity. To investigate the regulatory effect of PGB on the activity of ROMK1 channel, we used inside-out excised membrane patches to measure the K(+) current in Xenopus oocytes expressed either the wild-type (WT) or mutant ROMK1 channels. PGB concentration-dependently enhanced the activity of ROMK1 channels. PGB increases the WT channels, pHi gating residue mutant channels (K80M) and the mutant channels at phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2)-binding sites (R188Q, R217A, and K218A). Our study suggests that PGB in the regulating of ROMK1 channel function are neither by pHi- nor PIP2-dependent mechanism. We found PGB failed to prompt the activity of consensus phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C (PKC) mutated channels (S183A, T191A, T193A, S201A and T234A). Furthermore, PGB did not stimulate the activity of channels in the presence of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors, the mutants of the C-terminal PKA-phosphorylation sites (S219A and S313A), and the mutants constructed (S219D and S313D) which mimic the addition of negative charged associated with phosphorylation bound to a serine. These results demonstrated that PKA- and PKC-mediated phosphorylation represents a novel mechanism for PGB-activated ROMK1 channels. The enhancement of ROMK1 currents proves to an important molecular mechanism underlying the analgesic/anticonvulsant property of PGB for the restoration of RMP.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.06.049 · 2.68 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
75 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014