Preventive Veterinary Medicine

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX 77843-4458, USA.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.17). 09/2011; 103(1):16-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT One of the most important transboundary animal diseases (TADs) in the southern African region is foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In this region, a pathway for spread of FMD virus is contacts between cattle and certain species of wildlife. The objective of this study was to evaluate contacts between cattle and wildlife in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and the adjacent Limpopo province for the time periods October 2006 to March 2007 and April to September 2007. In this study, 87 livestock owners and 57 KNP field rangers were interviewed. Fifteen (17%) livestock owners reported contacts between wildlife and cattle. More livestock owners reported observing contacts between cattle and all wildlife species during October-March than April-September (p=0.012). However, no difference was found between these periods for contacts between cattle and individual wildlife species. A total of 18 (32%) field rangers reported contacts between cattle and wildlife. The most common species-specific contacts were between cattle and buffalo (63/year), cattle and impala (17/year) and cattle and lion (10/year). There were no significant differences in rangers reporting observed contacts between cattle and wildlife during October-March versus April-September or between rangers reporting observed contacts outside versus within the KNP. Overall, there was no evidence of higher contact rates between cattle and wildlife in the study area during October-March compared to April-September. Contact data collected in this study can be used to better understand the transmission of FMD virus in this region.

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Available from: Ferran Jori, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "In addition, contacts may also occur by cattle entering the KNP for grazing and drinking, as seen in our study and reported elsewhere [19] [20]. It is important to note that contact , as defined in our study, does not necessarily imply direct contact but includes indirect contact via shared water or grazing. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in domestic and wild animals living in the wildlife/livestock interface area of the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. Fifty fecal samples from domestic calves in rural communities and 142 fecal samples from impala (Aepyceros melampus) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the KNP were analysed for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, using a nested PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer of the rRNA gene. All wildlife samples were negative for E. bieneusi, whereas nine (18%) calf samples were positive. Three cattle specific genotypes (group 2) were identified, belonging to the known genotypes BEB4 and I, and one novel genotype (BEB3-like). One human-pathogenic genotype (D) was detected in one calf. This is the first study on microsporidia performed in a wildlife/livestock interface area of sub-Saharan Africa. Our findings show that at least one genotype of zoonotic importance is circulating in native cattle in the study area and the rest of the identified microsporidia were host-specific genotypes. Larger studies in domestic animals, humans and wildlife are necessary to assess the public health significance of E. bieneusi in that interface area.
    Veterinary Parasitology 07/2012; 190(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.06.031 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. was done on isolates from African elephant (Loxodonta africana), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), impala (Aepyceros melampus) and native domestic calves collected during May and June 2008 at the wildlife/livestock interface of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 18S rRNA gene was used in feces from 51 calves (3-12 months of age), 71 buffalo, 71 impala and 72 elephant, and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene was done on PCR-RFLP-positive wildlife samples. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 8% (4/51) of the calves and identified as C. andersoni (2/4) and C. bovis (2/4). Four of the 214 wildlife samples were positive for Cryptosporidium with a prevalence of 2.8% each in impala and buffalo. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum was detected in two impala and one buffalo, and C. bovis in one buffalo. A concurrent questionnaire conducted among 120 farmers in the study area investigated contacts between wildlife species and livestock. Buffalo and impala had the highest probability of contact with cattle outside the KNP. Despite the fairly low prevalence found in wildlife and cattle, the circulation of zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., such as C. ubiquitum, should be investigated further, particularly in areas of high HIV infection prevalence. Further studies should target younger animals in which the prevalence is likely to be higher.
    Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 09/2012; 36(3). DOI:10.1016/j.cimid.2012.07.004 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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