Safety and immunogenicity study of a killed bivalent (O1 and O139) whole-cell oral cholera vaccine Shanchol, in Bangladeshi adults and children as young as 1 year of age.
ABSTRACT Safety and immunogenicity study of an oral, killed, bivalent whole-cell, cholera vaccine, Shanchol was carried out in Bangladeshi participants. This study was conducted prior to initiating a feasibility study in Bangladesh.
The double-blind, randomized placebo controlled study was carried out in adults (18-45 years), toddlers (2-5 years) and younger children (12-23 months). Two doses of the vaccine/placebo were given 14 days apart.
Shanchol did not elicit major adverse events in any age group. Vibriocidal antibody responses in adults were 60% against Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba, 72% against V. cholerae O1 Ogawa and 21% against V. cholerae O139. In toddlers, responses were 84%, 75% and 64% and in younger children it was 74%, 78% and 54% against Inaba, Ogawa and O139 serotypes. The responses in all ages were higher in vaccinees compared to pre-immune titers or to responses in placebo recipients (P<0.001). Plasma IgA antibody response to O1 Inaba LPS was seen in 61%, 73% and 45% of adults, toddlers and younger children, respectively.
The safety and immunogenicity data for Shanchol is promising and warrants future use in large scale trial in cholera endemic areas, high risk Bangladeshi population and in other countries in the region.
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ABSTRACT: During the development of a vaccine, identification of the correlates of protection is of paramount importance for establishing an objective criterion for the protective performance of the vaccine. However, the ascertainment of correlates of immunity conferred by any vaccine is a difficult task. While conducting a phase three double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in Kolkata, we evaluated the immunogenicity of the vaccine in a subset of participants. Randomly chosen participants (recipients of vaccine or placebo) were invited to provide blood samples at baseline, 14 days after the second dose and one year after the first dose. At these time points, serum geometric mean titers (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies and seroconversion rates for vaccine and placebo arms were calculated and compared across the age strata (1 to 5 years, 5 to 15 years and more than 15 years) as well as for all age groups. Out of 137 subjects included in analysis, 69 were vaccinees and 68 received placebo. There were 5•7 and 5•8 geometric mean fold (GMF) rises in titers to Vibrio cholerae Inaba and Ogawa, respectively at 14 days after the second dose, with 57% and 61% of vaccinees showing a four-fold or greater titer rise, respectively. After one year, the titers to Inaba and Ogawa remained 1•7 and 2•8 fold higher, respectively, compared to baseline. Serum vibriocidal antibody response to V. cholerae O139 was much lower than that to Inaba or Ogawa. No significant differences in the GMF-rises were observed among the age groups. The reformulated oral cholera vaccine induced a statistically significant anti-O1 Inaba and O1 Ogawa vibriocidal antibody response 14 days after vaccination, which although declined after one year remained significantly higher than baseline. Despite this decline, the vaccine remained protective five years after vaccination.PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e96499. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: When oral vaccines are administered to children in lower- and middle-income countries, they do not induce the same immune responses as they do in developed countries. Although not completely understood, reasons for this finding include maternal antibody interference, mucosal pathology secondary to infection, malnutrition, enteropathy, and previous exposure to the organism (or related organisms). Young children experience a high burden of cholera infection, which can lead to severe acute dehydrating diarrhea and substantial mortality and morbidity. Oral cholera vaccines show variations in their duration of protection and efficacy between children and adults. Evaluating innate and memory immune response is necessary to understand V. cholerae immunity and to improve current cholera vaccine candidates, especially in young children. Further research on the benefits of supplementary interventions and delivery schedules may also improve immunization strategies.Human Vaccines and Therapeutics 05/2014; 10(6). · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed.Therapeutic advances in vaccines. 09/2014; 2(5):123-36.