Enhancement of differentiation efficiency of hESCs into vascular lineage cells in hypoxia via a paracrine mechanism.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia is one way of inducing differentiation due to the activation of the key regulatory factor, Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). However, the action of HIF-1α on the differentiation of hESCs was unclear until now. To investigate the effect of hypoxia on the differentiation of hESCs, we compared the differentiation efficacy into vascular lineage cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We observed HIF-1α expression and the related expression of pro-angiogenic factors VEGF, bFGF, Ang-1 and PDGF in hEBs cultured under hypoxic conditions. Along with this, differentiation efficacy into vascular lineage cells was improved under hypoxic conditions. When HIF-1α was blocked by echinomycin, both angiogenic factors and the differentiation efficacy were down-regulated, suggesting that the enhancement of differentiation efficacy was caused by intrinsic up-regulation of HIF-1α and these pro-angiogenic factors under hypoxic condition. This response might be primarily regulated by the HIF-1α signal pathway, and hypoxia might be the key to improving the differentiation of hESCs into vascular lineage cells. Therefore, this study demonstrated that microenvironmental changes (i.e., hypoxia) can improve differentiation efficacy of hESCs into a vascular lineage without exogenous factors via cell-intrinsic up-regulation of angiogenic factors. These facts will contribute to the regulation of stem cell fate.
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ABSTRACT: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells have recently emerged as an attractive cell type for the treatment of diabetes-associated wounds.The purpose of this study was to examine the potential biological function of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells(PMSCs) in wound healing in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki(GK) rats. PMSCs were isolated from human placenta tissue and characterized by flow cytometry. A full-thickness circular excisional wound was created on the dorsum of each rat. Red fluorescent CM-DiI-labeled PMSCs were injected intradermally around the wound in the treatment group. After complete wound healing, full-thickness skin samples were taken from the wound sites for histological evaluation of the volume and density of vessels. Our data showed that the extent of wound closure was significantly enhanced in the PMSCs group compared with the no-graft controls. Microvessel density in wound bed biopsy sites was significantly higher in the PMSCs group compared with the no-graft controls. Most surprisingly, immunohistochemical studies confirmed that transplanted PMSCs localized to the wound tissue and were incorporated into recipient vasculature with improved angiogenesis. Notably, PMSCs secreted comparable amounts of proangiogenic molecules, such as VEGF, HGF, bFGF, TGF-β and IGF-1 at bioactive levels. This study demonstrated that PMSCs improved the wound healing rate in diabetic rats. It is speculated that this effect can be attributed to the PMSCs engraftment resulting in vascular regeneration via direct de novo differentiation and paracrine mechanisms. Thus, placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells are implicated as a potential angiogenesis cell therapy for repair-resistant chronic wounds in diabetic patients.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor