Retrospective Case—Control Study of the Effects of Long-Term Dosing with Meloxicam on Renal Function in Aged Cats with Degenerative Joint Disease
The Cat Clinic, Prahran, Melbourne, Australia.
Journal of feline medicine and surgery
09/2011; 13(10):752-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfms.2011.06.008
Medical records (2005-2009) of a feline-only practice were searched for cats with degenerative joint disease (DJD) treated using meloxicam. DJD was diagnosed by the presence of at least two of the following: (i) altered mobility (observed by the owner), (ii) abnormal physical findings, (iii) characteristic radiographic changes. The primary study cohort consisted of cats older than 7 years that had received meloxicam for variable intervals in excess of 6 months, and for which complete records were available. These cats were subdivided according to whether detectable chronic kidney disease (CKD) was present ('renal group'), or not ('non-renal group'), and, for the 'renal group', according to the cat's IRIS category. Serum biochemistry, urinalysis (including urine specific gravity [USG]), body mass and condition score were monitored regularly. Progression of CKD in the 'renal group' and 'non-renal group' of cats was compared to two groups of age- and IRIS-matched control cats not receiving meloxicam (from the same clinic, over the same time period). The study was thus a case-control design, with two study groups. Thirty-eight cats with DJD receiving long-term meloxicam therapy met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 22 cats had stable CKD at the start of treatment (stage 1, eight cats; stage 2, 13 cats; stage 3, one cat). No cats initially had an elevated urinary protein to creatinine ratio. The remaining 16 cats initially had normal renal analytes and adequately concentrated urine. The median age of the 'renal' and 'non-renal' meloxicam groups was 15.5 and 13.4 years, respectively. The median treatment duration was 467 days in the 'renal group' and 327 days in the 'non-renal group'. After titration (to the lowest effective dose), the median maintenance dose was 0.02 mg/kg/day in both groups (range 0.015-0.033 mg/kg/day). There was no difference in sequential serum creatinine concentration or USG measurements between the 'non-renal group' treated with meloxicam compared to control cats not treated with meloxicam. There was less progression of renal disease in the 'renal group' treated with meloxicam compared to the age- and IRIS-matched cats with CKD not given meloxicam. These results suggest that a long-term maintenance dose of 0.02 mg/kg of meloxicam can be safely administered to cats older than 7 years even if they have CKD, provided their overall clinical status is stable. Long-term meloxicam therapy may slow the progression of renal disease in some cats suffering from both CKD and DJD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
Available from: B Duncan X Lascelles
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ABSTRACT: Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM).
Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period.
Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p<0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042).
Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease.
PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0131839. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131839 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is very common in the cat and in many cases is associated with significant long-term pain, which limits mobility and activity, and severely compromises the animal's quality of life. CLINICAL CHALLENGES: The treatment of chronic arthritic pain is a major challenge and many analgesic drugs used in other species are not licensed, not available or not tested for use in the cat. Many older cats with painful OA have some degree of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many clinicians are reluctant to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in these animals because of the potential for nephrotoxicity. EVIDENCE BASE: There are several publications that show that meloxicam is an effective NSAID for the cat and can be used long-term. It is easy to administer and there is published evidence that meloxicam can actually slow the progression of CKD in this species. Many other drugs are used to treat chronic pain in the cat but there is no documented evidence of their efficacy in OA. Unlike the dog, there is limited evidence for the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acid-rich diets in managing feline OA and further work is required. There is no published data as yet for the usefulness or otherwise of nutraceuticals (glucosamine and chondroitin) in managing feline OA; studies in the authors' clinic suggest some pain-relieving effect. Research into environmental enrichment as a way of improving quality of life in cats with painful OA is lacking, but it is an approach worth using where possible. Modifications to the environment (eg, provision of comfortable bedding and ramps) are also important.
01/2012; 14(1):76-84. DOI:10.1177/1098612X11432829
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: Three- or 5-day courses of meloxicam [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) subcutaneously pre- or postoperatively on Day 1 followed by 0.05 mg/kg BW, PO per day thereafter] were assessed for analgesic efficacy and safety in 50 client-owned cats undergoing onychectomy and sterilization. Primary outcome parameters were analgesia score, gait/lameness score, and need for rescue analgesia assessed at times 0, 1, 4, 7, 24, 28, 35, 48, 52, 57 hours and on Day 5. Packed cell volume/total solids and serum biochemistry were assessed at time 0 and Days 3 and 5. There were no differences in efficacy and safety parameters regardless of the treatment protocol employed and no cat required rescue analgesia. The patients that received meloxicam preoperatively had statistically better gait/lameness scores than those that received meloxicam postoperatively, supporting the principle of preemptive analgesia.
The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 03/2012; 53(3):257-64. · 0.52 Impact Factor
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