Article

Hospitalizations for Alcohol and Drug Overdoses in Young Adults Ages 18–24 in the United States, 1999–2008: Results From the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

Division of Epidemiology and Prevention Research, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-9304, USA.
Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs (Impact Factor: 2.27). 09/2011; 72(5):774-86. DOI: 10.15288/jsad.2011.72.774
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent reports indicate an increase in rates of hospitalizations for drug overdoses in the United States. The role of alcohol in hospitalizations for drug overdoses remains unclear. Excessive consumption of alcohol and drugs is prevalent in young adults ages 18-24. The present study explores rates and costs of inpatient hospital stays for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their co-occurrence in young adults ages 18-24 and changes in these rates between 1999 and 2008.
Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were used to estimate numbers, rates, and costs of inpatient hospital stays stemming from alcohol overdoses (and their subcategories, alcohol poisonings and excessive consumption of alcohol), drug overdoses (and their subcategories, drug poisonings and nondependent abuse of drugs), and their co-occurrence in 18- to 24-year-olds.
Hospitalization rates for alcohol overdoses alone increased 25% from 1999 to 2008, reaching 29,412 cases in 2008 at a cost of $266 million. Hospitalization rates for drug overdoses alone increased 55%, totaling 113,907 cases in 2008 at a cost of $737 million. Hospitalization rates for combined alcohol and drug overdoses increased 76%, with 29,202 cases in 2008 at a cost of $198 million.
Rates of hospitalizations for alcohol overdoses, drug overdoses, and their combination all increased from 1999 to 2008 among 18- to 24-year-olds. The cost of such hospitalizations now exceeds $1.2 billion annually. The steepest increase occurred among cases of combined alcohol and drug overdoses. Stronger efforts are needed to educate medical practitioners and the public about the risk of overdoses, particularly when alcohol is combined with other drugs.

0 Followers
 · 
93 Views
  • Source
    • "The freshman year is also often marked by unhealthy habits including poor eating habits, physical inactivity and heavy drinking (Larson et al., 2011; Osberg et al., 2012). Negative alcohol-related consequences include drinking and driving, physical/sexual assault, serious injury, and fatalities (Hingson, 2010; White et al., 2011). Personality factors predispose college students to heavy drinking and alcohol-related risks (Ham et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: College students engage in many unhealthy behaviors, one of these, heavy alcohol use, is a major global public health problem.
    05/2015; 2. DOI:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.05.004
  • Source
    • "However, some people drink far beyond the binge threshold, resulting in alcoholic trauma (White et al. 2006). While binge drinking is reported in 20% of American high school students, 10% of them experience extreme binge drinking, with up to 15 drinks in a single occasion (Patrick et al. 2013), leading to a 25% increase in hospitalization rates for alcohol overdoses during the last decade (White et al. 2011). Such alcohol consumptions can lead to blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 300 mg/dL for a 160-pound male and 400 mg/dL for a 140-pound female (White and Hingson 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A major cause of alcohol toxicity is the production of reactive oxygen species generated during ethanol metabolism. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure on a panel of genes implicated in oxidative mechanisms in adolescent and adult mice. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in the repair and protection of oxidative DNA damage such as atr, gpx7 or nudt15 and increased the expression of proapoptotic genes such as casp3. In contrast, in the adult brain, genes activated by alcohol were mainly associated with protective mechanisms that prevent cells from oxidative damage. Whatever the age, iterative binge-like episodes provoked the same deleterious effects as those observed after a single binge episode. In adolescent mice, multiple binge ethanol exposure substantially reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and impaired short-term memory in the novel object and passive avoidance tests. Taken together, our results indicate that alcohol causes deleterious effects in the adolescent brain which are distinct from those observed in adults. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2014; 132(6). DOI:10.1111/jnc.13020 · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Adolescents with alcohol use disorders have deficits in executive functioning (Brown et al., 2000; Hanson et al., 2011; Tapert and Brown, 2000) consistent with frontal cortical dysfunction. Although studies have found that heavy drinking among adolescent males increases impulsivity the following year in those individuals predisposed to adolescent-typical impulsivity (A.M. White et al., 2011; H.R. White et al., 2011), human studies are all confounded by the difficulty in distinguishing a preexisting condition that leads to alcohol abuse from an alcohol induced dysfunction that alters the individual beyond the period of intoxication. Adolescence is a developmental period associated with maturation of cognitive ability, personality and frontal cortical executive functions (Crews et al., 2007; Gong et al., 2012; Spear, 2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28–37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found that AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2013; 116. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.11.021 · 2.82 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview

Download
3 Downloads
Available from