Improved cellular immune response elicited by a ubiquitin-fused DNA vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the immune response elicited by a ubiquitin (Ub)-fused MPT64 DNA vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding MPT64 protein, Ub-fused MPT64 DNA vaccine (UbGR-MPT64), and negative DNA vaccines, respectively. MPT64 DNA vaccine immunization induced a Thl-polarized immune response. The production of Thl-type cytokine (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ]) and proliferative T cell responses were enhanced significantly in mice immunized with UbGR-MPT64 fusion DNA vaccine, compared with nonfusion DNA vaccine. Moreover, this fusion DNA vaccine also resulted in an increased relative ratio of IgG2a to IgGl and the cytotoxicity of T cells. IFN-γ intracellular staining of splenocytes indicated that UbGR-mpt64 fusion DNA vaccine activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, particularly CD8+ T cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that the UbGR-MPT64 fusion DNA vaccine inoculation could improve antigen-specific cellular immune responses, which is helpful for protection against TB.
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ABSTRACT: Nearly 350 million persons worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Ubiquitin (Ub) is a highly conserved small regulatory protein, ubiquitous in eukaryotes, that usually serves as a signal for the target protein that is recognised and degraded in proteasomes . The Ub-mediated processing of antigens is rapid and efficient and stimulates cell-mediated immune responses. Accordingly, Ub-mediated processing of antigens has been widely used in chronic-infection and cancer studies to improve immune response. Many clinical trials have shown that DNA vaccine potency needs to be greatly enhanced. Here, we report a new strategy for designing an HBV DNA vaccine using the ubiquitin (Ub) sequence. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel DNA vaccination, based on the expression of HBV core antigen (HBcAg), fused to Ub to enhance DNA vaccine potency. Mouse ubiquitin fused to the HBcAg gene and cloned into the eukaryotic vector pcDNA3.1 (-). BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant pUb-HBcAg or pHBcAg DNA vaccine. Lymphocyte proliferation assay, intracellular IFN-γ assay, CTL cytotoxicity assay, and antibody assay were performed to analyze the cellular and humoral immune responses to our DNA constructs. HBcAg was expressed effectively in the COS-7 cells that were transiently transfected with pUb-HBcAg. Strong anti-HBc IgG responses were elicited in mice that were immunized with pUb-HBcAg. The endpoint titers of anti-HBc peaked at 1:656100 on the 42nd day after the third immunization. pUb-HBcAg stimulated greater lymphocyte proliferation and induced higher levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ and a greater percentage of HBcAg-specific CD8+ T cells in mice than pHBcAg. In the CTL assay, the specific lysis rate reached 56.5% at an effector:target ratio of 50:1 in mice that were immunized with pUb-HBcAg. pUb-HBcAg elicits specific anti-HBc responses and induces HBc-specific CTL responses in immunized BALB/c mice. Our results imply that Ub can be used as a molecular adjuvant that enhances the potency of DNA vaccines.Hepatitis Monthly 08/2011; 11(8):620-8. · 1.25 Impact Factor
Article: The future of human DNA vaccines.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA vaccines have evolved greatly over the last 20 years since their invention, but have yet to become a competitive alternative to conventional protein or carbohydrate based human vaccines. Whilst safety concerns were an initial barrier, the Achilles heel of DNA vaccines remains their poor immunogenicity when compared to protein vaccines. A wide variety of strategies have been developed to optimize DNA vaccine immunogenicity, including codon optimization, genetic adjuvants, electroporation and sophisticated prime-boost regimens, with each of these methods having its advantages and limitations. Whilst each of these methods has contributed to incremental improvements in DNA vaccine efficacy, more is still needed if human DNA vaccines are to succeed commercially. This review foresees a final breakthrough in human DNA vaccines will come from application of the latest cutting-edge technologies, including "epigenetics" and "omics" approaches, alongside traditional techniques to improve immunogenicity such as adjuvants and electroporation, thereby overcoming the current limitations of DNA vaccines in humans.Journal of Biotechnology 09/2012; · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health concern in most low-income countries. Hence, rapid and sensitive TB diagnostics play an important role in detecting and preventing the disease. In addition to established diagnostic methods, several new approaches have been reported. Some techniques are simple but time-consuming, while others require complex instrumentation. One prominent and readily available approach is to detect proteins that Mycobacterium tuberculosis secretes, such as Mpt64, the 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (Esat6), the 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (Cfp10), and the antigen 85 (Ag85) complex. Although their functions are not fully understood, a growing body of molecular evidence implicates them in M. tuberculosis virulence. Currently these biomarkers are either being used or investigated for use in skin patch tests, biosensor analyses, and immunochromatographic, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction-based, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the roles these immunodominant antigens play in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and compares diagnostic methods based on the detection of these proteins with more established tests for TB.Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) 04/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor