Changes in vascular function and structure in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Child Health Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
Arthritis care & research 12/2011; 63(12):1736-44. DOI: 10.1002/acr.20613
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic inflammatory diseases in adults have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk and impaired vascular function. We aimed to assess the presence of early vascular dysfunction in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and investigate the role of inherent inflammatory process of JIA in vascular health.
Thirty patients with JIA (age range 7-18 years) were compared to 33 age- and sex-matched controls. Endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and arterial stiffness were examined. Endothelial inflammation was assessed by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin measurements.
Patients with JIA showed decreased FMD compared to controls (P = 0.001), independent of age (P = 0.9 among age subgroups). Baseline differences in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ICAM-1, and glucose between the 2 groups accounted for the difference in FMD. The presence of systemic JIA was associated with greater IMT compared to patients with oligoarticular disease, polyarticular disease, or controls (P = 0.014, P = 0.069, and P = 0.046, respectively). The difference in IMT between systemic versus oligoarticular/polyarticular JIA was attributed to the following risk factors: age, body mass index, blood pressure, disease activity, and corticosteroids use. There were no differences in arterial stiffness indices between JIA patients and controls or between patients with systemic versus nonsystemic disease.
Endothelial function is impaired in patients with JIA at a very young age, while IMT is increased only in the presence of systemic JIA. Vascular dysfunction may be partly attributed to the effects of disease-related characteristics (inflammation, disease activity, and medications).

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    • "There are very scarce published data on subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with JIA, reviewed in [10]. Recent studies showed increased IMT in JIA children or impaired endothelial function in these patients [11] [12]. However, children with traditional atherosclerosis risk factors were not included in those studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective. We aimed to determine the prevalence of excess body mass in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) children and to investigate the influence of obesity into the early, subclinical changes in cardiovascular system in these patients. Methods. Fifty-eight JIA patients, aged median 13 years, were compared to 36 healthy controls. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-6, TNF α , adiponectin) were studied together with IMT (intima-media thickness), FMD (flow mediated dilation), and LVMi (left ventricle mass index) as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. Thirteen JIA children (22%) were obese and had increased systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA, hsCRP, and IL-6 compared to nonobese JIA and controls. FMD was decreased compared to nonobese JIA and controls, whereas IMT and LVMi were increased. In multivariate regression analysis, TNF α , SDS-BMI, and systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of early CV changes in JIA. Conclusions. Coincident obesity is common in JIA children and is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and increased levels of inflammatory markers leading to early changes in cardiovascular system. Thus, medical care of children with JIA should include strategies preventing cardiovascular disease by maintenance of adequate body weight.
    Mediators of Inflammation 03/2013; 2013:436702. DOI:10.1155/2013/436702 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    • "There are very scarce published data on subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with JIA, reviewed in [10]. Recent studies showed increased IMT in JIA children or impaired endothelial function in these patients [11] [12]. However, children with traditional atherosclerosis risk factors were not included in those studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the vascular status, left-ventricular mass and biomarkers of endothelial activation in hypertensive (HT) adolescents, with particular attention to comparing nonobese with obese patients. Seventy-nine newly diagnosed HT adolescents aged 15.1±2.1 years (divided into 34 nonobese and 45 obese) were compared with 35 healthy volunteers. Intima-media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and left-ventricular mass index (LVMi) were determined using ultrasound. Adhesion molecules and inflammatory interleukins (ILs), together with lipids and insulin resistance (HOMA), were also studied. HT obese adolescents had higher triglycerides, HOMA, and elevated levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble E-selectin compared with controls and nonobese HT patients. FMD was lower in HT groups (8.5±4.5% in nonobese, P=0.004; 8.1±4.9%, P=0.01 in obese vs 12.5±4.9%; in control), and IMT was higher (0.52±0.06 mm, P<0.001 in nonobese; 0.54±0.05 mm, P<0.001 in obese vs 0.42±0.05 mm in control). Higher LVMi was found in both HT groups, with the highest value in the nonobese group being 37.8±5.3 g m(-2.7) vs 28.4±5.3 g m(-2.7) in controls (P=0.003). In conclusion, nonobese HT adolescents had the same early cardiovascular deteriorations assessed ultrasonographically as their obese HT peers, although metabolic alterations and endothelial activation measured as plasma biomarkers were more pronounced in obese individuals. The potential mechanisms of early atherosclerosis in nonobese HT adolescents need further evaluation in prospective studies because these factors may differ considerably from those found in young obese individuals with HT.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 29 March 2012; doi:10.1038/jhh.2012.11.
    Journal of human hypertension 03/2012; DOI:10.1038/jhh.2012.11 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is important to recognize as timely diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis. It is a misconception that complications of JIA arise only from long-standing disease and that children will outgrow it. Early aggressive treatment is the paradigm as early disease activity has long-term consequences. There are predictors of persistent disease and joint erosions that may identify patients at higher risk. Control of disease activity within the first 6 months of onset confers improved clinical course and outcomes. The treatment perspective is thus one of early aggressive treatment for induction of disease control and ultimately remission.
    Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America 05/2012; 38(2):355-72. DOI:10.1016/j.rdc.2012.04.006 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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