Human tumor-induced and naturally occurring Treg cells differentially affect NK cells activated by either IL-2 or target cells.
ABSTRACT NK cells play a crucial role in the eradication of tumor cells. Naturally occurring (n) Treg cells and induced (i) Treg cells are two distinct Treg subsets. While the interaction of nTreg cells with NK cells has been investigated in the past, the role of tumor iTreg cells in the modulation of NK-cell function remains unclear. Tumor iTreg cells were generated from CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells in the presence of autologous immature DCs, head and neck cancer cells and IL-2, IL-10, and IL-15. The effect of iTreg cells and nTreg cells on the expression of NKG2D, NKp44, CD107a, and IFN-γ by NK cells, as well as NK tumor-cytolytic activity, were investigated. iTreg cells - similar to recombinant TGF-β and nTreg cells - inhibited IL-2-induced activation of NK cells in the absence of target cell contact. Surprisingly, and in contrast to nTreg cells, iTreg cells enhanced NK-cell activity elicited by target cell contact. The cytolytic activity of NK cells activated by iTreg cells was mediated via perforin and FasL. We conclude that tumor iTreg cells inhibited IL-2-mediated NK-cell activity in the absence of target cells, whereas the tumoricidal activity of NK cells was enhanced by iTreg cells. Our data suggest a complex, previously not recognized, differential regulation of human NK activity by iTreg cells in the tumor microenvironment.
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ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Treg) are key players in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. As a result of suppressive effects on CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells, Treg control the adaptive immune system and prevent autoimmunity. In addition, they inhibit B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and monocytes/macrophages. It is interesting that several recent papers show that CD4+CD25+ Treg are also able to inhibit NK cells. Thus, Treg exert their control on immune responses from the onset (triggering of innate immune cells) to the effector phase of adaptive immunity (B and T cell-mediated responses). That Treg inhibit NK cells suggests that their uncontrolled activation might break self-tolerance and induce "innate" autoimmune pathology. Conversely, Treg-mediated suppression of NK cell functions might have negative effects, as these cells are important in defense against infections and cancer. It is conceivable that Treg might dampen efficient activation of NK cells in these diseases.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 02/2007; 81(1):144-53. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells were originally defined by their ability to lyse tumor cells or virus-infected cells and identified as one type of effector cells of the non-antigen specific innate resistance. However, many recent studies have widened the interpretation of the role of NK cells in immunity and shown that NK cells have important regulatory roles in innate resistance, antigen-specific adaptive immunity, and, possibly, in hematopoiesis. These functions of NK cells more than on their cytotoxic activity, are probably dependent on their ability to produce lymphokines, particularly interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). NK cells are important for antigen-independent activation of phagocytic cells early in infection and for favoring the development of antigen-specific T helper cells type I, producing IFN-gamma and IL-2. A role for NK cells in suppression of hematopoiesis and in induction of septic shock may represent a pathological exaggeration of the physiologic functions of NK cells in innate resistance.Seminars in Immunology 05/1995; 7(2):83-8. · 5.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prognostic significance of FOXP3(+) lymphocyte (Treg) density in colorectal cancer compared with conventional histopathologic features and with CD8(+) and CD45RO(+) lymphocyte densities. Tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the densities of CD8(+), CD45RO(+), and FOXP3(+) lymphocytes in tumor tissue and normal colonic mucosa from 967 stage II and stage III colorectal cancers. These were evaluated for associations with histopathologic features and patient survival. FOXP3(+) Treg density was higher in tumor tissue compared with normal colonic mucosa, whereas CD8(+) and CD45RO(+) cell densities were lower. FOXP3(+) Tregs were not associated with any histopathologic features, with the exception of tumor stage. Multivariate analysis showed that stage, vascular invasion, and FOXP3(+) Treg density in normal and tumor tissue were independent prognostic indicators, but not CD8(+) and CD45RO(+). High FOXP3(+) Treg density in normal mucosa was associated with worse prognosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.13; P = .019). In contrast, a high density of FOXP3(+) Tregs in tumor tissue was associated with improved survival (HR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.77; P = .001). FOXP3(+) Treg density in normal and tumor tissue had stronger prognostic significance in colorectal cancer compared with CD8(+) and CD45RO(+) lymphocytes. The finding of improved survival associated with a high density of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3(+) Tregs in colorectal cancer contrasts with several other solid cancer types. The inclusion of FOXP3(+) Treg density may help to improve the prognostication of early-stage colorectal cancer.Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2009; 27(2):186-92. · 18.04 Impact Factor