The Role of the Primary Care Physician in Managing Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease
ABSTRACT Recent increases in obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, along with the aging of the US population, are driving a dramatic rise in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite this increase, the majority of Americans with early-stage CKD remain unaware of their disease. Primary care physicians are at the forefront of efforts for early recognition of CKD and management to control its progression. Patients with CKD should be referred to nephrologists no later than the point at which their estimated glomerular filtration rate reaches 30 mL/min. Nephrology evaluation at this point is essential to facilitate timely preparation for care of end-stage renal disease through preemptive transplantation or planned transition to dialysis. In addition to stringent control of underlying hypertension and/or diabetes, mineral metabolic parameters (serum parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, calcium, and bicarbonate) in patients with advancing CKD should be managed closely to avoid adverse effects on the cardiovascular and skeletal systems.
Atención Primaria 03/2013; 45(3):176–177. DOI:10.1016/j.aprim.2012.11.003 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important global public health problem that is associated with adverse health outcomes and high health care costs. Effective and cost-effective treatments are available for slowing the progression of CKD and preventing its complications, including cardiovascular disease. Although wealthy nations have highly structured schemes in place to support the care of people with kidney failure, less consideration has been given to health systems and policy for the much larger population of people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Further, how to integrate such strategies with national and international initiatives for control of other chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) merits attention. We synthesized the various approaches to CKD control across 17 European countries and present our findings according to the key domains suggested by the World Health Organization framework for NCD control. This report identifies opportunities to strengthen CKD-relevant health systems and explores potential mechanisms to capitalize on these opportunities. Across the 17 countries studied, we found a number of common barriers to the care of people with non-dialysis-dependent CKD: limited work force capacity, the nearly complete absence of mechanisms for disease surveillance, lack of a coordinated CKD care strategy, poor integration of CKD care with other NCD control initiatives, and low awareness of the significance of CKD. These common challenges faced by diverse health systems reflect the need for international cooperation to strengthen health systems and policies for CKD care. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 11/2014; 65(1). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.07.033 · 5.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a relatively common condition not only associated with increased morbidity and mortality but also fuelling End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Among developed nations, Greece has one of the highest ESRD incidence rates, yet there is limited understanding of the epidemiology of earlier stages of CKD. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of pre-dialysis CKD outpatients in nephrology clinics in the National Health Care system between October 2009 and October 2010. Demographics, cause of CKD, blood pressure, level of renal function, duration of CKD and nephrology care, and specialty of referral physician were collected and analyzed. Different methods for estimating renal function (Cockroft-Gault [CG], CKD-Epi and MDRD) and staging CKD were assessed for agreement. Results: A total of 1,501 patients in 9 centers were enrolled. Diabetic nephropathy was the most common nephrologist assigned cause of CKD (29.7%). In total, 36.5% of patients had self-referred to the nephrologist; patients with diabetes or serum creatinine above 220 mu mol/l (eGFR<40 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were more likely to have been referred by a physician. Agreement between MDRD and CKD-Epi, but not between CG, the other estimating equations, was excellent. There was substantial heterogeneity with respect to renal diagnoses, referral patterns and blood pressure among participating centers. Conclusions: In this first epidemiologic assessment of CKD in Greece, we documented delayed referral and high rates of self-referral among patients with CKD. eGFR reporting, currently offered by a limited number of laboratories, may facilitate detection of CKD at an earlier, more treatable stage.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9:e112767. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112767 · 3.53 Impact Factor