Glomerular hyperfiltration and renal progression in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine whether glomerular hyperfiltration (GH) occurring early in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is indicative of more rapid disease progression in children.
One hundred eighty children with ADPKD (ages 4 to 18 years) with normal renal function were examined by renal ultrasound. Renal volume was calculated using a standard formula for a modified ellipsoid. Creatinine clearance was calculated from serum creatinine and 24-hour urine creatinine. GH was defined as creatinine clearance ≥140 ml/min per 1.73 m(2).
Thirty-two children had GH (mean age 11.4 ± 3.6 years) and 148 had normal renal function (mean age 10.8 ± 3.9 years). Patients with GH at baseline demonstrated an increased rate of total renal volume growth (β: rate of change = +19.3 ± 10.8 cm(3)/year) over 5 years compared with those without GH at baseline (β = -4.3 ± 7.7 cm(3)/year), P = 0.008. Those with GH at baseline experienced a faster decline in creatinine clearance in subsequent years (β = -5.0 ± 0.8 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year) compared with those without GH at baseline (β = +1.0 ± 0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year), P < 0.0001.
This study revealed that occurrence of GH in ADPKD children is associated with a significantly faster decline in renal function and higher rate of kidney enlargement over time. GH combined with the increased renal volume may therefore be used as an early marker for a more severe progression of ADPKD in children.
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ABSTRACT: Individuals who are at risk for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are often screened by ultrasound using diagnostic criteria derived from individuals with mutations in PKD1. Families with mutations in PKD2 typically have less severe disease, suggesting a potential need for different diagnostic criteria. In this study, 577 and 371 at-risk individuals from 58 PKD1 and 39 PKD2 families, respectively, were assessed by renal ultrasound and molecular genotyping. Using sensitivity data derived from genetically affected individuals and specificity data derived from genetically unaffected individuals, various diagnostic criteria were compared. In addition, data sets were created to simulate the PKD1 and PKD2 case mix expected in practice to evaluate the performance of diagnostic criteria for families of unknown genotype. The diagnostic criteria currently in use performed suboptimally for individuals with mutations in PKD2 as a result of reduced test sensitivity. In families of unknown genotype, the presence of three or more (unilateral or bilateral) renal cysts is sufficient for establishing the diagnosis in individuals aged 15 to 39 y, two or more cysts in each kidney is sufficient for individuals aged 40 to 59 y, and four or more cysts in each kidney is required for individuals > or = 60 yr. Conversely, fewer than two renal cysts in at-risk individuals aged > or = 40 yr is sufficient to exclude the disease. These unified diagnostic criteria will be useful for testing individuals who are at risk for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the usual clinical setting in which molecular genotyping is seldom performed.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2008; 20(1):205-12. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by gradual renal enlargement and cyst growth prior to loss of renal function. Standard radiographic imaging has not provided the resolution and accuracy necessary to detect small changes in renal volume or to reliably measure renal cyst volumes. The Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies in Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) is longitudinally observing ADPKD individuals using high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to determine if change in renal and cyst volumes can be detected over a short period of time, and if they correlate with decline in renal function early in disease. Standardization studies were conducted in phantoms and four subjects at each participating clinical center. After, in the full-scale protocol, healthy ADPKD individuals 15 to 45 years old with creatinine clearance>70 mL/min underwent standardized MR renal imaging, renal iothalamate clearance, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and determination of 24-hour urinary albumin and electrolyte excretion. Stereology was used from T1-weighted images to quantify renal volume, and region-growing thresholding was used from T2-weighted images to determine cyst volume. Renal structures were evaluated in relation to demographic, clinical, and biochemical variables using means/medians, standard deviations, and Pearson correlations. Reliability coefficients for MR renal and cyst volume measurements in phantoms were 99.9% and 89.2%, respectively. In the full-scale protocol, 241 ADPKD individuals (145 women and 96 men) were enrolled. Total renal, cyst, and % cyst volume were significantly greater in each decade group. Hypertensive individuals demonstrated greater renal, cyst, and % cyst volume than normotensive subjects. Age-adjusted renal (r = -0.31, P < 0.0001), cyst (r = -0.36, P < 0.0001), and % cyst volume (r = -0.35, P < 0.0001) were inversely related to glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Age-adjusted renal volume (r = 0.42, P < 0.0001), cystic (r = 0.39, P < 0.0001, and % cyst volume (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001) were related with urinary albumin excretion. MR measures of renal and cyst volume are reliable and accurate in patients with ADPKD. ADPKD is characterized by significant cystic involvement that increases with age. Structure (renal and cyst volume) and function (GFR) are inversely related and directly related with the presence of hypertension and urinary albumin excretion in individuals with normal renal function.Kidney International 09/2003; 64(3):1035-45. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a progressive hereditary disorder affecting children and young adults. Early intervention may be necessary to significantly affect the long-term consequences of this disease. The authors conducted a 5-yr randomized clinical trial to assess the effect of BP control with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) on disease progression in 85 children and young adults with ADPKD. Study groups were determined by subject BP, including hypertension (BP >or= 95th percentile), borderline hypertension (BP 75 to 95th percentile), and severe ADPKD (BP <or=75th percentile with > 10 renal cysts). The primary outcome variable was renal volume by ultrasound, with secondary outcome variables including left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and microalbuminuria. In secondary analysis, the authors compared results between hypertensive and normotensive groups. The authors were not able to demonstrate a significant effect of ACEI on renal growth in young subjects with ADPKD. Hypertensive children were at particular risk for increases in renal volume and LVMI and decreased renal function as compared with the other study groups, and borderline hypertensive children were at high risk to develop hypertension over time. However, ACEI treatment was associated with stable renal function and LVMI in this group of children. Close monitoring of cardiovascular and renal status is indicated in ADPKD children with hypertension or borderline hypertension. In contrast to effects in hypertensive ADPKD children, ACEI treatment in normotensive or borderline hypertensive ADPKD children may prevent the development of increased LVMI and deterioration in renal function.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2009; 4(4):820-9. · 5.07 Impact Factor