Inhibition of Granzyme B by PI-9 protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis
ABSTRACT In order for tumors to grow and proliferate, they must avoid recognition by immune cells and subsequent death by apoptosis. Granzyme B (GrB), a protease located in natural killer cells, initiates apoptosis in target cells. Inhibition of GrB by PI-9, its natural inhibitor, can prevent apoptosis. Here we investigate whether PI-9 protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis.
The expression of PI-9 was quantified by qPCR in several prostate cancer cell lines, and GrB activity was tested in each cell line. PI-9 was overexpressed in LNCaP cells, which lack endogenous PI-9. Apoptosis was induced by natural killer cells in LNCaP cells that either contained or lacked PI-9, and the percent cell death was quantified. Lastly, PI-9 levels were examined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry in prostate tumor tissue.
Prostate cancer cell lines that expressed PI-9 could inhibit GrB. Overexpression of PI-9 protected LNCaP cells from natural killer cell-mediated apoptosis. Examination of the levels of PI-9 in tissue from prostate tumors showed that PI-9 could be upregulated in low grade tumors and stochastically dysregulated in high grade tumors. Additionally, PI-9 was found consistently in high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atrophic lesions.
These results indicate that overexpression of PI-9 can protect prostate cancer cells from apoptosis, and this effect may occur in human prostate tumors. These findings imply that early prostatic inflammation may trigger this increase in PI-9. This suggests that PI-9 upregulation is needed early in tumor progression, before additional protective mechanisms are in place.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Accumulation of firm evidence that clinically apparent cancer develops only when malignant cells manage to escape immunosurveillance led to the introduction of tumor immunotherapy strategies aiming to reprogramm the cancer-dysbalanced antitumor immunity and restore its capacity to control tumor growth. There are several immunotherapeutical strategies, among which specific active immunotherapy or therapeutic cancer vaccination is one of the most promising. It targets dendritic cells (DCs) which have a unique ability of inducing naive and central memory T cell-mediated immune response in the most efficient manner. DCs can be therapeutically targeted either in vivo/in situ or by ex vivo manipulations followed by their re-injection back into the same patient. The majority of current DC targeting strategies are based on autologous or allogeneic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) which possess various degrees of inherent tolerogenic potential. Therefore still limited efficacy of various tumor immunotherapy approaches may be attributed, among various other mechanisms, to the insufficient immunogenicity of self-protein-derived TAAs. Based on such an idea, the use of homologous xenogeneic antigens, derived from different species was suggested to overcome the natural immune tolerance to self TAAs. Xenoantigens are supposed to differ sufficiently from self antigens to a degree that renders them immunogenic, but at the same time preserves an optimal homology range with self proteins still allowing xenoantigens to induce cross-reactive T cells. Here we discuss the concept of xenogeneic vaccination, describe the cons and pros of autologous/allogeneic versus xenogeneic therapeutic cancer vaccines, present the results of various pre-clinical and several clinical studies and highlight the future perspectives of integrating xenovaccination into rapidly developing tumor immunotherapy regimens.Vaccine 05/2014; 32(32). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.05.006 · 3.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer cells can produce IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) in response to interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which may function to neutralize IL-18, an anti-tumor factor formerly known as IFN-γ inducing factor. The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been associated with a lower risk of certain types of cancer including prostate cancer, although the precise mechanisms of this effect are poorly understood. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFAs could modify IL-18BP production by prostate cancer cells by altering IFN-γ receptor-mediated signal transduction. Here, we demonstrate that n-3 PUFA treatment significantly reduced IFN-γ-induced IL-18BP production by DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells by inhibiting IL-18BP mRNA expression and was associated with a reduction in IFN-γ receptor expression. Furthermore, IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and P38 were suppressed by n-3 PUFA treatment. By contrast, n-6 PUFA had no effect on IFN-γ receptor expression, but decreased IFN-γ-induced IL-18BP production and IFN-γ stimulation of JAK1, STAT1, ERK1/2, and JNK phosphorylation. These data indicate that both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be beneficial in prostate cancer by altering IFN-γ signaling, thus inhibiting IL-18BP production and thereby rendering prostate cancer cells more sensitive to IL-18-mediated immune responses.Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 10/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1007/s00262-014-1630-z · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The design of nanovaccines capable of triggering effective anti-tumor immunity requires an understanding of how the immune system senses and responds to threats, including pathogens and tumors. As equally important is an understanding of the mechanisms employed by tumor cells to evade immunity and an appreciation of the deleterious effects that anti-tumor immune responses can have on tumor growth, such as by skewing tumor cell composition towards immunologically-silent tumor cell variants. The immune system and tumors engage in a tug-of-war driven by competition where promoting anti-tumor immunity or tumor cell death alone may be therapeutically insufficient. Nanotechnology affords a unique opportunity to develop therapeutic compounds than can simultaneously tackle both aspects, favoring tumor eradication. Here, we review the current status of nanoparticle-based immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer, ranging from antigen/adjuvant-delivery vehicles (to professional antigen-presenting cell types of the immune system) to direct tumor antigen-specific T-lymphocyte-targeting compounds and their combinations thereof.ACS Nano 12/2014; 9(1). DOI:10.1021/nn5062029 · 12.03 Impact Factor