Article

Inhibition of Granzyme B by PI-9 protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis.

Graduate Group in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2517, USA.
The Prostate (Impact Factor: 3.84). 09/2011; 72(8):846-55. DOI: 10.1002/pros.21486
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In order for tumors to grow and proliferate, they must avoid recognition by immune cells and subsequent death by apoptosis. Granzyme B (GrB), a protease located in natural killer cells, initiates apoptosis in target cells. Inhibition of GrB by PI-9, its natural inhibitor, can prevent apoptosis. Here we investigate whether PI-9 protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis.
The expression of PI-9 was quantified by qPCR in several prostate cancer cell lines, and GrB activity was tested in each cell line. PI-9 was overexpressed in LNCaP cells, which lack endogenous PI-9. Apoptosis was induced by natural killer cells in LNCaP cells that either contained or lacked PI-9, and the percent cell death was quantified. Lastly, PI-9 levels were examined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry in prostate tumor tissue.
Prostate cancer cell lines that expressed PI-9 could inhibit GrB. Overexpression of PI-9 protected LNCaP cells from natural killer cell-mediated apoptosis. Examination of the levels of PI-9 in tissue from prostate tumors showed that PI-9 could be upregulated in low grade tumors and stochastically dysregulated in high grade tumors. Additionally, PI-9 was found consistently in high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and atrophic lesions.
These results indicate that overexpression of PI-9 can protect prostate cancer cells from apoptosis, and this effect may occur in human prostate tumors. These findings imply that early prostatic inflammation may trigger this increase in PI-9. This suggests that PI-9 upregulation is needed early in tumor progression, before additional protective mechanisms are in place.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
96 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of firm evidence that clinically apparent cancer develops only when malignant cells manage to escape immunosurveillance led to the introduction of tumor immunotherapy strategies aiming to reprogramm the cancer-dysbalanced antitumor immunity and restore its capacity to control tumor growth. There are several immunotherapeutical strategies, among which specific active immunotherapy or therapeutic cancer vaccination is one of the most promising. It targets dendritic cells (DCs) which have a unique ability of inducing naive and central memory T cell-mediated immune response in the most efficient manner. DCs can be therapeutically targeted either in vivo/in situ or by ex vivo manipulations followed by their re-injection back into the same patient. The majority of current DC targeting strategies are based on autologous or allogeneic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) which possess various degrees of inherent tolerogenic potential. Therefore still limited efficacy of various tumor immunotherapy approaches may be attributed, among various other mechanisms, to the insufficient immunogenicity of self-protein-derived TAAs. Based on such an idea, the use of homologous xenogeneic antigens, derived from different species was suggested to overcome the natural immune tolerance to self TAAs. Xenoantigens are supposed to differ sufficiently from self antigens to a degree that renders them immunogenic, but at the same time preserves an optimal homology range with self proteins still allowing xenoantigens to induce cross-reactive T cells. Here we discuss the concept of xenogeneic vaccination, describe the cons and pros of autologous/allogeneic versus xenogeneic therapeutic cancer vaccines, present the results of various pre-clinical and several clinical studies and highlight the future perspectives of integrating xenovaccination into rapidly developing tumor immunotherapy regimens.
    Vaccine 05/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumors develop when infiltrating immune cells contribute growth stimuli, and cancer cells are selected to survive within such a cytotoxic microenvironment. One possible immune-escape mechanism is the upregulation of PI-9 (Serpin B9) within cancer cells. This serine proteinase inhibitor selectively inactivates apoptosis-inducing granzyme B (GrB) from cytotoxic granules of innate immune cells. We demonstrate that most classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL)-derived cell lines express PI-9, which protects them against the GrB attack and thereby renders them resistant against GrB-based immunotherapeutics. To circumvent this disadvantage, we developed PI-9-insensitive human GrB mutants as fusion proteins to target the Hodgkin-selective receptor CD30. In contrast to the wild-type GrB, a R201K point-mutated GrB construct most efficiently killed PI-9-positive and -negative cHL cells. This was tested in vitro and also in vivo whereby a novel optical imaging-based tumor model with HL cell line L428 was applied. Therefore, this variant, as part of the next generation immunotherapeutics, also named cytolytic fusion proteins showing reduced immunogenicity, is a promising molecule for (targeted) therapy of patients with relapsing malignancies, such as cHL, and possibly other PI-9-positive malignancies, such as breast or lung carcinoma.
    Blood Cancer Journal 01/2013; 3:e106. · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The deregulated proteolysis is associated with various diseases in humans. Proteases are commonly regarded as the therapeutic targets. Almost one-third of all proteolytic enzymes in humans are serine proteases. This work provides a brief characteristic of the proteinaceous natural inhibitors, mostly of serine proteases. The examples of some classical and recently identified canonical and non-canonical inhibitors as well as serpins are described. Their actual and potential therapeutic applications are discussed.
    Current pharmaceutical design 09/2012; · 4.41 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from