Comparison of different sample treatments for the analysis of ochratoxin A in wine by capillary HPLC with laser-induced fluorescence detection.
ABSTRACT Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin naturally found in various foods, including wine. As OTA is considered as a possible human carcinogen, the maximum concentration for this compound has been established at 2 μg kg(-1) in wine by the EU (Directive (CE) No 1881/2006). Typically, immunoaffinity columns have been used for its extraction. However, simpler, more efficient and less contaminant extraction systems are demanding. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using ionic liquid as extractant solvent (IL-DLLME) and the QuEChERS procedure, have been evaluated and compared for extraction of OTA in wine samples. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF, He-Cd Laser excitation at 325 nm) coupled with capillary HPLC has been used for the determination of OTA, using a sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in the mobile phase to increase the fluorescence intensity. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established for both methods, obtaining LODs (3× S/N) of 5.2 ng·L(-1) and 85.7 ng·L(-1) for IL-DLLME and QuEChERS, respectively. Clean extracts were obtained for white, rose and red wines with both methods, with recoveries between 88.7-94.2% for IL-DLLME and between 82.6-86.2% for QuEChERS. The precision was evaluated in terms of repeatability (n = 9) and intermediate precision (n = 15), being ≤ 8.5% for IL-DLLME and ≤ 5.4% for QuEChERS.
- SourceAvailable from: Ana M. García-Campaña[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of fourteen mycotoxins in nuts and seeds (including almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, walnuts, macadamia nuts, pistachios, hazelnuts and pine nuts) has been developed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The sample treatment comprises a first step based on QuEChERS procedure for the determination of fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone and ochratoxin A. A subsequent clean-up step based on the dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) was necessary for the determination of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2), since their determination was not possible applying only the QuEChERS-based extraction. The method was validated for peanuts as representative matrix and was subsequently evaluated for the other eight matrices. Quantification limits obtained for aflatoxins, the unique mycotoxins legislated on these matrices, were lower than the maximum levels allowed by the current legislation, while quantification limits obtained for the other mycotoxins were lower than the limits usually permitted by the legislation in other food matrices. Precision of the method was always lower than 11%, and recoveries ranged between 60.7% and 104.3%.Talanta 10/2013; 115:61–67. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An extensive critical evaluation of the application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) combined with chromatographic and atomic-spectroscopic methods for the determination of organic and inorganic compounds is presented. The review emphasizes the procedures used for the prior treatment of food samples, which are very different from the DLLME procedures generally proposed for water samples. The main contribution of this work in the field of DLLME reviews is its critical review of the abundant literature showing the increasing interest and practical advantages of using DLLME and closely related microextraction techniques for food analysis.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2014; 406:2067-2099. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been proposed for the determination of 15 mycotoxins in milk thistle (Silybum marianum), including aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone. The mycotoxins were detected by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), achieving the separation in about 4min. Sample treatment consisted of a modified method based on a first step using a QuEChERS-based procedure which allowed the determination of fumonisin B, fumonisin B, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and fusarenon-X, and a subsequent clean-up based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of the rest of mycotoxins. The method has been validated in extract and seeds of milk thistle, obtaining limits of quantification lower than those usually permitted by legislation in food matrices, with precisions lower than 10%. Recoveries were between 62.3% and 98.9%, except for zearalenone in seeds samples and citrinin in extract. The method was also applied for studying the occurrence of these mycotoxins in market samples (six samples of seeds, three of them purchased in bulk in a street vendor, and one natural extract of milk thistle), and HT-2, T-2 and zearalenone have been found in some of the samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this type of treatment has been used for these complex food matrices, allowing the analyses of the most important mycotoxins.Journal of Chromatography A 03/2013; 1282:11-9. · 4.61 Impact Factor