Magnetic resonance imaging retinal oximetry: a quantitative physiological biomarker for early diabetic retinopathy?
ABSTRACT To assess the efficacy of using magnetic resonance imaging measurements of retinal oxygenation response to detect early diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted during 100% oxygen inhalation in patients with Type 2 diabetes with either no diabetic retinopathy (n = 12) or mild to moderate background diabetic retinopathy (n = 12), as well as in healthy control subjects (n = 12). Meanwhile, changes in retinal oxygenation response were measured.
In the healthy control group, levels of retinal oxygenation response increased slowly during 100% oxygen inhalation. In contrast, they increased more quickly and attained homeostasis much earlier in the groups with background diabetic retinopathy (at the 20-min time point) and with no diabetic retinopathy (at the 25-min time point) than in the healthy control group (at the 42-min time point). Furthermore, levels of retinal oxygenation response in the group with background diabetic retinopathy increased more than that of the group with no diabetic retinopathy, which in turn increased more than that of the healthy control group. There are statistically significant differences between the group with background diabetic retinopathy and the healthy control group at 6-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-min time points (P < 0.05). According to the normal range of the healthy control group by setting fundus photography results as 'gold standard' in our research, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and receiver operating characteristic area for reporting the early indications of utility of diabetic retinopathy were 83.33%, 58.33%, 50%, 87.5% and 0.774, respectively.
The results indicate that magnetic resonance imaging is a potential screening method and probably a quantitative physiological biomarker to find early diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Determining which patients are at risk for the development of diabetic retinopathy is expected to greatly improve existing prevention and treatment options. In this study, using an animal model of diabetic retinopathy, the hypothesis was tested that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a carbogen inhalation challenge provides important diagnostic information regarding the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. MRI was used to measure noninvasively the change in oxygen tension along the entire inner retina (i.e., from superior ora serrata to inferior ora serrata) during a carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) inhalation challenge (IOVS 1996;37:2089). Two animal groups were examined by this MRI method at two time points: (1) rats fed either normal rat chow (n = 20) or a 50% galactose diet (n = 20) for 3.5 months (i.e., before the appearance of extensive retinal lesions) or (2) rats fed either normal rat chow (n = 3) for 15 months or a 30% galactose diet (n = 4) for 15 to 18 months (i.e., when lesions are present). Retinal biochemical and morphometric measurements were also obtained. After 3.5 months of galactosemia, before the appearance of extensive retinal morphologic lesions, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the panretinal oxygenation response was observed in the galactosemic group compared with its age-matched control. These galactose-fed animals also displayed a significantly (P < 0.05) larger oxygenation response in the inferior hemiretina than in the superior hemiretina. After 15 to 18 months of galactosemia, during the period when lesions are present, the panretinal oxygenation response remained significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the galactose-fed animals than in their age-matched controls. In contrast to the 3.5-month results, the oxygenation response in galactosemic animals at 15 to 18 months was significantly (P < 0.05) larger in the superior than in the inferior hemiretina. Hemiretinal oxygenation responses were not different in normal controls at either duration. MRI measurement of the retinal oxygenation response to a carbogen challenge appears to be a powerful new and noninvasive approach that may be useful for assessing aspects of pathophysiology underlying the development of diabetic retinopathy in galactosemic rats. These results support our working hypothesis and suggest that further research into the diagnostic potential of this MRI approach for predicting the development of diabetic retinopathy is warranted.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 09/1999; 40(9):2100-5. · 3.44 Impact Factor
- Physiological Reviews 05/1991; 71(2):447-80. · 30.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most widespread complication of diabetes mellitus and a major cause of blindness in the working population of developed countries. The clinicopathology of the diabetic retina has been extensively studied, although the relative contribution of the various biochemical and molecular sequelae of hyperglycemia remains ill defined. Many neural and microvascular abnormalities occur in the retina of short-term diabetic animals but it remains uncertain how closely these acute changes relate to chronic human disease. It is important to determine the relationship between alterations observed within the first weeks or months in short-term animal models, and human disease, where clinically manifest retinopathy occurs only after durations of diabetes measured in years. This review is focused on the retinal microvasculature, although it should be appreciated that pathological changes in this system often occur in parallel with abnormalities in the neural parenchyma that may be derivative or even causal. Nevertheless, it is useful to reevaluate the microvascular lesions that are manifest in the retina during diabetes in humans and long-term animal models, since in addition to providing useful clues to the pathogenic basis of DR as a disease entity, it is in the deterrence of such changes that the efficacy of any novel treatment regimes will be measured. In particular, an emphasis will be placed on the relatively unappreciated role of arteriolar dysfunction in the clinical manifestations and pathology of this disease.Microcirculation 02/2007; 14(1):25-38. · 2.76 Impact Factor