A cultural perspective of samoans' perceived risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
ABSTRACT : Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, which are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States, have a high incidence among Pacific Islanders. Risk of these conditions increases in the presence of metabolic syndrome. Risk-reducing behaviors for CVD and diabetes are driven partly by perceived risk of health threats and their consequences. Perceived risk is influenced by sociocultural beliefs and is a component of some health behavior models, yet it is understudied in Pacific Islanders.
: This mixed-methods study explored the perceived risk of CVD and diabetes in at-risk Samoan Pacific Islanders.
: We used culturally sensitive strategies to recruit and enroll 43 adult Samoans from a community setting in Hawaii. Participants were obese with at least 1 other component of metabolic syndrome. Their objective risk was determined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Program III risk categories. Participants provided demographic and health history information and answered 2 quantitative perceived risk questions. They also participated in 1 of 7 focus groups-the source of perceived risk qualitative data. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis, respectively. The mixed-methods analysis targeted points of data convergence and complementarity for the 2 methods.
: More than 80% of participants who were at moderately high (10%-20%) objective risk for CVD and diabetes had high (>20%) perceived risk of these conditions. There was high concordance of perceived risk for CVD and diabetes (P < .05). Qualitative data revealed bidirectional codes that influenced and were influenced by perceived risk within the participants' cultural perspective: current and planned health behavior, physical health, and family history of CVD or diabetes.
: Using mixed methods facilitated better understanding of cultural perspectives of perceived risk of CVD and diabetes. These results provide a foundation for developing culturally appropriate interventions targeting CVD and diabetes risk reduction in Samoans.
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ABSTRACT: AIM: This article presents a discussion of development of a mid-range theory of risk perception. BACKGROUND: Unhealthy behaviours contribute to the development of health inequalities worldwide. The link between perceived risk and successful health behaviour change is inconclusive, particularly in vulnerable populations. This may be attributed to inattention to culture. DATA SOURCES: The synthesis strategy of theory building guided the process using three methods: (1) a systematic review of literature published between 2000-2011 targeting perceived risk in vulnerable populations; (2) qualitative and (3) quantitative data from a study of Samoan Pacific Islanders at high risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. DISCUSSION: Main concepts of this theory include risk attention, appraisal processes, cognition, and affect. Overarching these concepts is health-world view: cultural ways of knowing, beliefs, values, images, and ideas. This theory proposes the following: (1) risk attention varies based on knowledge of the health risk in the context of health-world views; (2) risk appraisals are influenced by affect, health-world views, cultural customs, and protocols that intersect with the health risk; (3) strength of cultural beliefs, values, and images (cultural identity) mediate risk attention and risk appraisal influencing the likelihood that persons will engage in health-promoting behaviours that may contradict cultural customs/protocols. IMPLICATIONS: Interventions guided by a culturally sensitive mid-range theory may improve behaviour-related health inequalities in vulnerable populations. CONCLUSIONS: The synthesis strategy is an intensive process for developing a culturally sensitive mid-range theory. Testing of the theory will ascertain its usefulness for reducing health inequalities in vulnerable groups.Journal of Advanced Nursing 07/2012; 69(3). DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06096.x · 1.69 Impact Factor
- International journal of cardiology 11/2013; 171(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.11.051 · 6.18 Impact Factor