Mortality and Cost Associated With Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Infections

Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 11.46). 09/2011; 171(20):1821-8. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.441
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) therapy can reduce morbidity and mortality, but this benefit can be diminished by CIED infection. Currently, there are limited published data on the mortality and cost associated with CIED infection.
We analyzed the risk-adjusted total and incremental admission mortality, long-term mortality, admission length of stay (LOS), and admission cost associated with infection in a retrospective cohort of 200 219 Medicare fee-for-service patients admitted for CIED generator implantation, replacement, or revision between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2007.
There were a total of 5817 admissions with infection. Infection was associated with significant increases in adjusted admission mortality (rate ratios, 4.8-7.7; standardized rates, 4.6%-11.3%) and long-term mortality (rate ratios, 1.6-2.1; standardized rates, 26.5%-35.1%), depending on CIED type. Importantly, approximately half of the incremental long-term mortality occurred after discharge. The adjusted LOS was significantly longer with infection (length of stay mean ratios, 2.5-4.0; standardized length of stay, 15.5-24.3 days), depending on CIED type. The standardized adjusted incremental and total admission costs with infection were $14 360 to $16 498 and $28 676 to $53 349, respectively, depending on CIED type. The largest incremental cost with infection was intensive care, which accounted for more than 40% of the difference. Adjusted long-term mortality rate and cost ratios with infection were significantly greater for pacemakers than for implantable cardioverter/defibrillators or cardiac resynchronization therapy/defibrillator devices.
Infection associated with CIED procedures resulted in substantial incremental admission mortality and long-term mortality that varied with the CIED type and occurred, in part, after discharge. Almost half of the incremental admission cost was for intensive care.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background-The rate of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) infections has been increasing faster than that of implantation. We sought to determine the rate and predictors of ICD infection in a large cohort of Medicare patients. Methods and Results-Cases submitted to the ICD Registry from 2006 to 2009 were matched to Medicare fee-for-service claims data using indirect patient identifiers. ICD infections occurring within 6 months of hospital discharge after implantation were identified by ICD-9 codes. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with risk of ICD infection. Of 200 909 implants, 3390 patients (1.7%) developed an ICD infection. The infection rate was 1.4%, 1.5%, and 2.0% for single, dual, and biventricular ICDs, respectively (P<0.001). Generator replacement had a higher rate compared with initial implant (1.9% versus 1.6%, P<0.001). The factors associated with infection were adverse event during implant requiring reintervention (odds ratio [OR], 2.692; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.304-3.145), previous valvular surgery (OR, 1.525; 95% CI, 1.375-1.692), reimplantation for device upgrade, malfunction, or manufacturer advisory (OR, 1.354; 95% CI, 1.196-1.533), renal failure on dialysis (OR, 1.342; 95% CI, 1.123-1.604), chronic lung disease (OR, 1.215; 95% CI, 1.125-1.312), cerebrovascular disease (OR, 1.172; 95% CI, 1.076-1.276), and warfarin (OR, 1.155; 95% CI, 1.060-1.257). Conclusions-Patients who developed an ICD infection were more likely to have had peri-ICD implant complications requiring early reintervention, previous valve surgery, device replacement for reasons other than battery depletion, and increased comorbidity burden. Efforts should be made to carefully consider when to reenter the pocket at any time other than battery replacement.
    Circulation 07/2014; 130(13). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.009081 · 14.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the last 2 decades, there has been a surge in newly implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). This is largely due to the increasing indications for these devices and their role in improving both survival and quality of life among certain groups of patients with heart disease. However, the net benefit of these devices is affected by adverse events and complications. CIED infection is one of these complications that increase morbidity and mortality. Patients with CIED infection can present with pocket infection or endovascular infection. Management usually involves CIED removal and antibiotic therapy. Despite its importance, many questions remain unanswered. Longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to better define risk factors for CIED infections and outcomes and to help assess best practices to prevent this complication.
    Current Infectious Disease Reports 09/2014; 16(9):425. DOI:10.1007/s11908-014-0425-x
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Device infection is associated with increased mortality in patients receiving cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) therapy. However, long-term mortality associated with CIED infections has not been systematically analyzed in larger studies. This study sought to determine the long-term mortality associated with CIED infection in a large cohort of Medicare beneficiaries. Methods We used a retrospective study design to analyze 3-year mortality in 200,219 Medicare fee-for-service patients admitted for CIED generator implantation, replacement, or revision between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, race, and 28 comorbidities was performed to determine the relative risk (RR) of death in the 12 quarters following CIED infection. Results Patients with CIED infection, compared to device recipients without infection, had increased mortality that persisted for at least 3 years after the admission quarter for all device types: pacemakers (PMs: 53.8% vs 33%; P < 0.001), implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD: 47.7% vs 31.6%; P < 0.001), and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D: 50.8% vs 36.5%; P < 0.001). After adjusting for patient demographics and comorbidities, significantly increased RR of death following CIED infection persisted for at least 3 years following PM infection, and for at least 2 years with single- and dual-chamber ICD infection. Conclusions CIED recipients who develop device infection have increased, device-dependent, long-term mortality even after successful treatment of infection. The etiology of this persistent increased risk of death associated with CIED infection is unknown and merits further investigation
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 09/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1111/pace.12518 · 1.25 Impact Factor