West syndrome associated with mosaic duplication of FOXG1 in a patient with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14.
ABSTRACT FOXG1 on chromosome 14 has recently been suggested as a dosage-sensitive gene. Duplication of this gene could cause severe epilepsy and developmental delay, including infantile spasms. Here, we report on a female patient diagnosed with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 and West syndrome who carried a small supernumerary marker chromosome. A chromosomal analysis revealed mosaicism of 47,XX, + mar/46,XX. Spectral karyotyping multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that the marker chromosome was derived from chromosome 14. A DNA methylation test at MEG3 in 14q32.2 and microsatellite analysis using polymorphic markers on chromosome 14 confirmed that the patient had maternal uniparental disomy 14 as well as a mosaic small marker chromosome of paternal origin containing the proximal long arm of chromosome 14. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis conclusively defined the region of the gain of genomic copy numbers at 14q11.2-q12, encompassing FOXG1. The results of the analyses of our patient provide further evidence that not only duplication but also a small increase in the dosage of FOXG1 could cause infantile spasms.
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ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms remain a challenging condition to study and treat, and although they form the commonest epilepsy syndrome with onset in infancy, the challenge is broadened by the wide range of potential underlying causes. The field of study remains dynamic, with debates relating to case definitions and organising structures for classification of seizures and epilepsies in general, and a newly proposed genetic and biologic classification specifically for infantile spasms. There have been recent consensus statements, a Delphi process eliciting prioritised quality-of-care indicators, systematic reviews of treatment, and a survey of clinical practice in the USA. There is increasing evidence that longer duration of spasms is associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. It has taken many years to develop an animal model that reasonably represents infantile spasms, but there are now several animal models, and they are leading to innovative and valuable studies that suggest novel treatments.Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 03/2013; 13(3):334. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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