West syndrome associated with mosaic duplication of FOXG1 in a patient with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14.
ABSTRACT FOXG1 on chromosome 14 has recently been suggested as a dosage-sensitive gene. Duplication of this gene could cause severe epilepsy and developmental delay, including infantile spasms. Here, we report on a female patient diagnosed with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 and West syndrome who carried a small supernumerary marker chromosome. A chromosomal analysis revealed mosaicism of 47,XX, + mar/46,XX. Spectral karyotyping multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that the marker chromosome was derived from chromosome 14. A DNA methylation test at MEG3 in 14q32.2 and microsatellite analysis using polymorphic markers on chromosome 14 confirmed that the patient had maternal uniparental disomy 14 as well as a mosaic small marker chromosome of paternal origin containing the proximal long arm of chromosome 14. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis conclusively defined the region of the gain of genomic copy numbers at 14q11.2-q12, encompassing FOXG1. The results of the analyses of our patient provide further evidence that not only duplication but also a small increase in the dosage of FOXG1 could cause infantile spasms.
- Clinical Genetics 06/2014; 85(6). · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dup(14q12) harboring FOXG1 has been recently reported in individuals with developmental delay of variable severity, delayed/absent speech, and epilepsy/infantile spasms. FOXG1 was described as a dosage-sensitive gene encoding G1, a forkhead protein that is a brain-specific transcription factor with a role in brain development. We extensively reviewed all published cases with dup(14) harboring FOXG1 and highlighted those epileptological features that are more commonly found among such cases. We also describe one new patient, detailing his peculiar clinical and neurophysiological findings. To date, 15 patients with dup(14) including FOXG1 have been reported; within those patients, nine also presented with epilepsy. At onset, the more frequent seizure type in the report and also in our patient is the epileptic spasm. Focal seizures might also be present. Outcomes in patients with epilepsy associated with dup(14) should be considered separately regarding seizures and cognitive and motor development. In the majority of patients (seven of 10, including ours), seizures tend to disappear and motor skills improve; however, instead stagnation of cognitive development is evident in all of them, associated with severe speech difficulties. There are some common features that should be considered: seizures with onset during the first year of life, particularly clusters of spasms and focal seizures with hypsarrhythmic electroencephalograph pattern; different degrees of cognitive impairment possibly associated with behavior disturbances and severe speech disabilities; and dysmorphic features in the absence of significant microcephaly.Pediatric Neurology 05/2014; 50(5):530-5. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Duplications of 14q12 encompassing FOXG1 gene have been recently associated with developmental delay, severe speech impairment, epilepsy, aspecific neuroimaging findings and minor dysmorphisms. Aim and methods: In order to refine the epileptic phenotype associated with 14q12 duplications, we have performed a review of the electroclinical picture of the patients reported to date in the literature, adding a new personal case. A comprehensive set of clinical and instrumental data (with a particular focus on the electroclinical aspects including seizure type, age of onset, EEG at onset and after antiepileptic therapy, drug efficacy) has been taken into account. Results: 9/14 patients carrying 14q12 duplications developed seizures, all in the first months of life. Most of them developed infantile spasms (8/9 epileptic patients) and presented hypsarrhythmia or modified hypsarrhythmia on EEG. After therapy 5/9 patients became seizure free and 3/9 present a good seizure control. At last available follow up, 2/3 of the epileptic patients displayed an almost normal EEG, or a quite organized background activity, with diffuse or focal (mostly temporal) slowing. Conclusions: The review of the available data allowed to recognize a common epileptic core, characterized by early onset, age dependent epileptic encephalopathy with infantile spasms and typical, atypical or modified hypsarrhythmia. Antiepileptic therapy soon led to a good or complete control of seizures with a nearly normal background activity in most patients.Brain & development 07/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor