Evaluation of HCD- and CID-type fragmentation within their respective detection platforms for murine phosphoproteomics.
ABSTRACT Protein phosphorylation modulates a myriad of biological functions, and its regulation is vital for proper cellular activity. Mass spectrometry is the enabling tool for phosphopeptide analysis, where recent instrumentation advances in both speed and sensitivity in linear ion trap and orbitrap technologies may yield more comprehensive phosphoproteomic analyses in less time. Protein phosphorylation analysis by MS relies on structural information derived through controlled peptide fragmentation. Compared with traditional, ion-trap-based collision-induced dissociation (CID), a more recent type of fragmentation termed HCD (higher energy collisional dissociation) provides beam type CID tandem MS with detection of fragment ions at high resolution in the orbitrap mass analyzer. Here we compared HCD to traditional CID for large-scale phosphorylation analyses of murine brain under three separate experimental conditions. These included a same-precursor analysis where CID and HCD scans were performed back-to-back, separate analyses of a phosphotyrosine peptide immunoprecipitation experiment, and separate whole phosphoproteome analyses. HCD generally provided higher search engine scores with more peptides identified, thus out-performing CID for back-to-back experiments for most metrics tested. However, for phosphotyrosine IPs and in a full phosphoproteome study of mouse brain, the greater acquisition speed of CID-only analyses provided larger data sets. We reconciled our results with those in direct contradiction from Nagaraj N, D'Souza RCJ et al. (J. Proteome Res. 9:6786, 2010). We conclude, for large-scale phosphoproteomics, CID fragmentation with rapid detection in the ion trap still produced substantially richer data sets, but the back-to-back experiments demonstrated the promise of HCD and orbitrap detection for the future.
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ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic cell division cycle is characterized by a sequence of orderly and highly regulated events resulting in the duplication and separation of all cellular material into two newly formed daughter cells. Protein phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) drives this cycle. To gain further insight into how phosphorylation regulates the cell cycle, we sought to identify proteins whose phosphorylation is cell cycle regulated. Using stable isotope labeling along with a two-step strategy for phosphopeptide enrichment and high mass accuracy mass spectrometry, we examined protein phosphorylation in a human cell line arrested in the G(1) and mitotic phases of the cell cycle. We report the identification of >14,000 different phosphorylation events, more than half of which, to our knowledge, have not been described in the literature, along with relative quantitative data for the majority of these sites. We observed >1,000 proteins with increased phosphorylation in mitosis including many known cell cycle regulators. The majority of sites on regulated phosphopeptides lie in [S/T]P motifs, the minimum required sequence for CDKs, suggesting that many of the proteins may be CDK substrates. Analysis of non-proline site-containing phosphopeptides identified two unique motifs that suggest there are at least two undiscovered mitotic kinases.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2008; 105(31):10762-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The considerable progress in high-throughput proteomics analysis via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry over the past decade has been fueled to a large degree by continuous improvements in instrumentation. High-throughput identification experiments are based on peptide sequencing and are largely accomplished through the use of tandem mass spectrometry, with ion trap and trap-based instruments having become broadly adopted analytical platforms. To satisfy increasingly demanding requirements for depth of characterization and throughput, we present a newly developed dual-pressure linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Velos) that features increased sensitivity, afforded by a new source design, and demonstrates practical cycle times 2 times shorter than that of an LTQ XL, while improving or maintaining spectral quality for MS/MS fragmentation spectra. These improvements resulted in a substantial increase in the detection and identification of both proteins and unique peptides from the complex proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans, as compared to existing platforms. The greatly increased ion flux into the mass spectrometer in combination with improved isolation of low-abundance precursor ions resulted in increased detection of low-abundance peptides. These improvements cumulatively resulted in a substantially greater penetration into the baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) proteome compared to LTQ XL. Alternatively, faster cycle times on the new instrument allowed for higher throughput for a given depth of proteome analysis, with more peptides and proteins identified in 60 min using an LTQ Velos than in 180 min using an LTQ XL. When mass analysis was carried out with resolution in excess of 25,000 full width at half-maximum (fwhm), it became possible to isotopically resolve a small intact protein and its fragments, opening possibilities for top down experiments.Analytical Chemistry 09/2009; 81(18):7757-65. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Design and performance of a novel hybrid mass spectrometer is described. It couples a linear ion trap mass spectrometer to an orbitrap mass analyzer via an rf-only trapping quadrupole with a curved axis. The latter injects pulsed ion beams into a rapidly changing electric field in the orbitrap wherein they are trapped at high kinetic energies around an inner electrode. Image current detection is subsequently performed after a stable electrostatic field is achieved. Fourier transformation of the acquired transient allows wide mass range detection with high resolving power, mass accuracy, and dynamic range. The entire instrument operates in LC/MS mode (1 spectrum/s) with nominal mass resolving power of 60,000 and uses automatic gain control to provide high-accuracy mass measurements, within 2 ppm using internal standards and within 5 ppm with external calibration. The maximum resolving power exceeds 100,000 (fwhm). Rapid, automated data-dependent capabilities enable real-time acquisition of up to three high-mass accuracy MS/MS spectra per second.Analytical Chemistry 05/2006; 78(7):2113-20. · 5.70 Impact Factor