Article

Duration of exclusive breastfeeding; validity of retrospective assessment at nine months of age.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Saliyapura, Sri Lanka.
BMC Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.92). 09/2011; 11:80. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-80
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In cross sectional, case control and retrospective cohort studies, duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) usually depends on maternal recall. Retrospective data are often subjected to recall bias and could lead to a potential for exposure misclassification. The purpose of the present paper is to assess the validity of maternal recall of EBF duration during infancy, after cessation of EBF and to evaluate the two methods to collect retrospective data on EBF.
A cohort study was carried out in Naula Medical Officer of Health (MOH) area. Study cohort included all infants born during the months of February to April 2008 and currently residing in Naula MOH area. Baseline data collection was carried out using the pregnancy record, the child health development record and by using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Data extraction from the pregnancy record and the child health development record were carried out by public health midwives. The interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by the MOH during the follow-up visits. Duration of EBF was assessed in three ways; based on prospective data since birth: Retrospective data based on an event calendar: and the Mother reported EBF duration.
A total of 114 mother-infant pairs were recruited and followed up. Proportion of infants receiving EBF up to the completion of the sixth month by the three methods were; data since birth (actual EBF rate) - 23.9%; mother reported data - 77.7% and event calendar method - 41.3%. Median duration of EBF reported in the three methods was 5, 6, and 5 respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed in these differences from Kaplan-Meire Survival analysis (Log rank test - Chi square-63.4, p < 0.001). Validity of retrospective methods was analysed using data since birth as the gold standard. Sensitivity of both methods to detect exclusively breastfed babies were 100.0%. Specificity of mother recall data was 26.2% (95%CI-17.9, 36.8%) compared to 75.0% (95% CI-64.5, 83.2%) in the event calendar method.
Retrospective evaluation methods systematically overestimate the duration of EBF. Maternal recall data provide highly unspecific data whereas use of an event calendar provided more valid data. Reporting of data accrual methods in breastfeeding studies will allow the readers to interpret findings accurately and the use of event calendars rather than direct questioning as a valid method of determining EBF is recommended.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
101 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to examine the association between breast-feeding and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes and to investigate whether this association is mediated by anthropometric and biochemical factors. A case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study between 1994 and 2005 including 1,262 childbearing women (1,059 in a random sub-cohort and 203 incident cases) mainly aged between 35 and 64 years at baseline was applied. Self-reported lifetime duration of breast-feeding was assessed by questionnaire. Blood samples were used for biomarker measurement (HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, fetuin-A, γ-glutamyltransferase, adiponectin). A systematic literature search and meta-analysis was conducted of prospective cohort studies investigating breast-feeding and risk of type 2 diabetes. The HR for each additional 6 months of breast-feeding was 0.73 (95% CI 0.56, 0.94) in EPIC-Potsdam. Meta-analysis of three previous prospective studies and the current study revealed an inverse association between breast-feeding duration and risk of diabetes (pooled HR for lifetime breast-feeding duration of 6-11 months compared with no breast-feeding 0.89; 95% CI 0.82, 0.97). Adjustment for BMI and waist circumference attenuated the association (HR per six additional months in EPIC-Potsdam 0.80; 95% CI 0.61, 1.04). Further controlling for potentially mediating biomarkers largely explained this association (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.68, 1.16). Longer duration of breast-feeding may be related to a lower risk of diabetes. This potentially protective effect seems to be reflected by a more favourable metabolic profile; however, the role of body weight as a mediator or confounder remains uncertain.
    Diabetologia 05/2014; 57(7). · 6.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although breastfeeding is almost universal in Ethiopia, only 52% newborns benefited from early initiation in 2011. Early initiation is one of the recommended interventions for saving newborn lives but its potential seems not yet realized for Ethiopian newborns and there is a need for continued efforts to increase coverage. To do so, it is also relevant to focus on consistent and accurate reporting of coverage in early initiation. WHO recommends the question "how long after birth did you first put [name] to the breast?" in order to assess coverage in early initiation. It is designed to measure the time after birth when the mother attempted to initiate breastfeeding regardless of whether breast milk had arrived or not. However, it is unclear how mothers perceive this question and what their responses of time refer to. In this study, we assessed Ethiopian mothers' perception about the question assessing early initiation.
    International Breastfeeding Journal 01/2014; 9:13.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
38 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014