High detection rates of nucleic acids of a wide range of respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and the middle ear of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.
ABSTRACT Both bacteria and viruses play a role in the development of acute otitis media, however, the importance of specific viruses is unclear. In this study molecular methods were used to determine the presence of nucleic acids of human rhinoviruses (HRV; types A, B, and C), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV; types A and B), bocavirus (HBoV), adenovirus, enterovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43), influenza viruses (types A, B, and C), parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, 3, 4A, and 4B), human metapneumovirus, and polyomaviruses (KI and WU) in the nasopharynx of children between 6 and 36 months of age either with (n = 180) or without (n = 66) a history of recurrent acute otitis media and in 238 middle ear effusion samples collected from 143 children with recurrent acute otitis media. The co-detection of these viruses with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was analyzed. HRV (58.3% vs. 42.4%), HBoV (52.2% vs. 19.7%), polyomaviruses (36.1% vs. 15.2%), parainfluenza viruses (29.4% vs. 9.1%), adenovirus (25.0% vs. 6.1%), and RSV (27.8% vs. 9.1%) were detected significantly more often in the nasopharynx of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media compared to healthy children. HRV was predominant in the middle ear and detected in middle ear effusion of 46% of children. Since respiratory viruses were detected frequently in the nasopharynx of both children with and without a history of recurrent acute otitis media, the etiological role of specific viruses in recurrent acute otitis media remains uncertain, however, anti-viral therapies may be beneficial in future treatment and prevention strategies for acute otitis media.
- SourceAvailable from: Lea-Ann S KirkhamThe Laryngoscope 12/2012; 122:s61-62. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Impetigo is a common infection in children living in remote areas. Immediate plating of impetigo swabs is the gold standard for bacterial recovery but is rarely feasible in remote regions. Bacterial culture increases our understanding of antibiotic resistance and strain diversity, which guides treatment protocols and epidemiological monitoring. METHODS: We investigated three practical alternatives for recovering Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus from transported swabs: dry swabs transported at 4°C with desiccant and plated within 48 h; swabs inoculated into skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB), transported at 4°C, stored at - 70°C and plated within 61 days; and ESwabs inoculated into Amies broth, transported at 4°C and plated within 48 h. Detection of Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus from simultaneously collected swabs was compared for the dry vs STGGB (36 sores) and the STGGB vs Amies (39 sores) methods. Swabs were collected from 43 children (75 sores sampled) in a remote community of Northern Territory, Australia in November 2011. The children had impetigo and were participating in the Skin Sore Trial [Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000858291]. RESULTS: Recovery of Strep. pyogenes for dry vs STGGB was 72% (26/36) and 92% (33/36) and for STGGB vs Amies was 92% (36/39) for both methods. Staphylococcus aureus recovery for dry vs STGGB was 69% (25/36) and 72% 26/36) and for STGGB vs Amies was 74% (29/39) and 85% (33/39). CONCLUSION: STGGB and Amies media provided higher recovery of Strep. pyogenes than dry swabs. These results and the opportunity to batch and store specimens for molecular studies support the use of STGGB transport media for future impetigo research.Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 04/2013; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obtaining a nasal swab (NS) from a child for human rhinovirus (HRV) RNA detection is simple and well tolerated even for repeated sampling, but only few studies have compared them qualitatively and quantitatively with other sampling methods. Real-time PCR was used to study the stability of HRV genomes in swabs, and to compare different swabs and induced sputum specimens with nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs). Replicate swabs in a dry test tube were stored at room temperature or mailed to the laboratory before freezing, and compared to freshly frozen specimens. To compare sampling methods, paediatric patients had NPA, NS and throat swab collected. In paired sputum and NPA specimens, viral load was correlated to the amount of β-actin mRNA. Specimens were stable at room temperature for at least 4 days and survived mailing without loss of HRV detectability. As compared to NPA, NS had an equal diagnostic sensitivity, with no significant quantitative difference using flocked nylon swabs and a 2.2-fold drop in the average copy number using cotton swabs. The diagnostic sensitivity of cotton swab-collected throat specimens was 97%, with a 26-fold lower mean copy number. Sputum specimens had higher HRV RNA (2.3-fold) and β-actin mRNA (1.6-fold) copy numbers than NPAs, but there was a poor correlation between HRV RNA and β-actin mRNA. HRV remains well detectable by PCR in specimens mailed to the laboratory. The diagnostic efficacy of NPA can be obtained with NS, quantitative comparison and patient comfort favouring flocked nylon-tipped over cotton-tipped swabs.Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 06/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor