High detection rates of nucleic acids of a wide range of respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and the middle ear of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media
ABSTRACT Both bacteria and viruses play a role in the development of acute otitis media, however, the importance of specific viruses is unclear. In this study molecular methods were used to determine the presence of nucleic acids of human rhinoviruses (HRV; types A, B, and C), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV; types A and B), bocavirus (HBoV), adenovirus, enterovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43), influenza viruses (types A, B, and C), parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, 3, 4A, and 4B), human metapneumovirus, and polyomaviruses (KI and WU) in the nasopharynx of children between 6 and 36 months of age either with (n = 180) or without (n = 66) a history of recurrent acute otitis media and in 238 middle ear effusion samples collected from 143 children with recurrent acute otitis media. The co-detection of these viruses with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was analyzed. HRV (58.3% vs. 42.4%), HBoV (52.2% vs. 19.7%), polyomaviruses (36.1% vs. 15.2%), parainfluenza viruses (29.4% vs. 9.1%), adenovirus (25.0% vs. 6.1%), and RSV (27.8% vs. 9.1%) were detected significantly more often in the nasopharynx of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media compared to healthy children. HRV was predominant in the middle ear and detected in middle ear effusion of 46% of children. Since respiratory viruses were detected frequently in the nasopharynx of both children with and without a history of recurrent acute otitis media, the etiological role of specific viruses in recurrent acute otitis media remains uncertain, however, anti-viral therapies may be beneficial in future treatment and prevention strategies for acute otitis media.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Acute otitis media (AOM) occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI). Bacterial otopathogens and respiratory viruses interact and play important roles in AOM development. Better understanding of viral and bacterial interactions may lead to innovative ways to lessen the burden of this common childhood disease. Recent findings: There has been increasing evidence that AOM occurs during URI, even in the absence of nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization. Among the types of viruses associated with AOM, respiratory syncytial virus continues to be the most commonly detected. It is still unclear whether viral load plays an important role in AOM development, but symptomatic URI (as opposed to asymptomatic viral infection) is crucial. Widespread use of bacterial and viral vaccines in young children, including pneumococcal conjugate and influenza vaccines, has led to the reduction in otitis media-related health care use between 2001 and 2011. There has been no new vaccine against respiratory viruses other than influenza. Summary: Progress has been made towards reduction of the burden of AOM in the last decade. Success in reducing AOM incidence will rely mainly on prevention of nasopharyngeal otopathogen colonization, as well as reduction in the incidence of viral URI.Current Opinion in Pediatrics 02/2015; DOI:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000184 · 2.74 Impact Factor
The Laryngoscope 12/2012; 122:s61-62. DOI:10.1002/lary.23817 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obtaining a nasal swab (NS) from a child for human rhinovirus (HRV) RNA detection is simple and well tolerated even for repeated sampling, but only few studies have compared them qualitatively and quantitatively with other sampling methods. Real-time PCR was used to study the stability of HRV genomes in swabs, and to compare different swabs and induced sputum specimens with nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs). Replicate swabs in a dry test tube were stored at room temperature or mailed to the laboratory before freezing, and compared to freshly frozen specimens. To compare sampling methods, paediatric patients had NPA, NS and throat swab collected. In paired sputum and NPA specimens, viral load was correlated to the amount of β-actin mRNA. Specimens were stable at room temperature for at least 4 days and survived mailing without loss of HRV detectability. As compared to NPA, NS had an equal diagnostic sensitivity, with no significant quantitative difference using flocked nylon swabs and a 2.2-fold drop in the average copy number using cotton swabs. The diagnostic sensitivity of cotton swab-collected throat specimens was 97%, with a 26-fold lower mean copy number. Sputum specimens had higher HRV RNA (2.3-fold) and β-actin mRNA (1.6-fold) copy numbers than NPAs, but there was a poor correlation between HRV RNA and β-actin mRNA. HRV remains well detectable by PCR in specimens mailed to the laboratory. The diagnostic efficacy of NPA can be obtained with NS, quantitative comparison and patient comfort favouring flocked nylon-tipped over cotton-tipped swabs.Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 06/2013; 58(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2013.06.002 · 3.47 Impact Factor