Article

Omega-3 for Bipolar Disorder: Meta-Analyses of Use in Mania and Bipolar Depression

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Richmond, Victoria, Australia.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.81). 08/2011; 73(1):81-6. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.10r06710
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Studies using augmentation of pharmacotherapies with omega-3 in bipolar disorder have been conducted; however, to date a specific meta-analysis in this area has not been published. Thus, we present the significant findings from meta-analyses of omega-3 in the treatment of bipolar depression and bipolar mania.
PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials up to September 1, 2010, using the search terms bipolar disorder OR bipolar depression OR bipolar mania OR mania OR hypomania OR cyclothymia with the search terms omega 3 OR essential fatty acids OR polyunsaturated fatty acids OR DHA OR EPA OR fish oil OR flax oil. Clinical trial registries and gray literature (published or unpublished data not readily accessible via main databases) were also searched.
The analysis included randomized controlled studies 4 weeks or longer, with a sample size > 10, written in English, using omega-3 for diagnosed bipolar depression or mania. No criteria were set for age, gender, or ethnicity.
A random-effects model was used. The model analyzed the standard mean difference between treatment and placebo between baseline and endpoint, combining the effect size (Hedges g) data. Funnel plot and heterogeneity analyses (I²) were also performed.
The findings of 5 pooled datasets (n = 291) on the outcome of bipolar depression revealed a significant effect in favor of omega-3 (P = .029), with a moderate effect size of 0.34. On the outcome of mania, 5 pooled datasets (n = 291) revealed a nonsignificant effect in favor of omega-3 (P = .099), with an effect size of 0.20. Minor heterogeneity between studies on the outcome of bipolar depression was found (I² = 30%; P = .213), which was not present on the outcome of bipolar mania (I² = 0%; P = .98). Funnel plot symmetry suggested no significant likelihood of publication bias. Meta-regression analysis between sample size and effect size, however, revealed that studies with smaller sample sizes had larger effect sizes (P = .05).
The meta-analytic findings provide strong evidence that bipolar depressive symptoms may be improved by adjunctive use of omega-3. The evidence, however, does not support its adjunctive use in attenuating mania.

1 Bookmark
 · 
224 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nutrition and specific nutritional supplements can have prophylactic or therapeutic properties with respect to certain psychiatric disorders. A traditional Mediterranean diet, for example, seems to have prophylactic benefits against depression and dementia, whereas overeating and obesity increase the risk for both.Although evidence for nutritional supplements in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is not sufficient for general recommendations, data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) seem to point to their use for specific indications. Folate, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), for instance, seem to have antidepressant properties, zinc may be beneficial in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) could reduce extrapyramidal side effects of antipsychotics and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) seems to be effective against negative symptoms, abnormal movements and akathisia in schizophrenia.Psychiatric disorders, in turn, may lead to deficiency of mineral nutrients and vitamins. For instance, vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency is common in alcohol-dependent patients and should therefore be considered during withdrawal treatment. Although vitamin malnutrition is uncommon in developed countries, vitamin deficiency syndromes, such as pernicious anemia or Wernicke's encephalopathy are still relevant differential diagnoses.Some psychopharmacological drugs may additionally change the nutritional habits of the patients in an unfavorable way leading to weight gain and obesity and the risk for further psychiatric problems.
    Der Nervenarzt 11/2014; 85(12). DOI:10.1007/s00115-014-4163-y · 0.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Affective disorders are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which, at least partly, appears to be independent of psychopharmacological treatments used to manage these disorders. Reduced heart rate variability (SDNN) and a low Omega-3 Index have been shown to be associated with increased risk for death after myocardial infarction. Therefore, we set out to investigate heart rate variability and the Omega-3 Index in euthymic patients with bipolar disorders.
    European Psychiatry 12/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.11.010 · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychiatry is at an important juncture, with the current pharmacologically focused model having achieved modest benefi ts in addressing the burden of poor mental health worldwide. Although the determinants of mental health are complex, the emerging and compelling evidence for nutrition as a crucial factor in the high prevalence and incidence of mental disorders suggests that diet is as important to psychiatry as it is to cardiology, endocrinology, and gastroenterology. Evidence is steadily growing for the relation between dietary quality (and potential nutritional defi ciencies) and mental health, and for the select use of nutrient-based supplements to address defi ciencies, or as monotherapies or augmentation therapies. We present a viewpoint from an international collaboration of academics (members of the International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research), in which we provide a context and overview of the current evidence in this emerging fi eld of research, and discuss the future direction. We advocate recognition of diet and nutrition as central determinants of both physical and mental health.
    The Lancet Psychiatry 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)00051-0